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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to examine the feasibility of an endonasal, transmaxillary, transpterygoid approach to the foramen ovale by examining key anatomical, radiological and surgical landmarks. Method: Measurements were taken from 183 patients' computed tomography scans using BrainLAB iPlan 1.1 Cranial software. Endoscopic dissection was then carried out on a cadaver to assess surgical viability. Results: We found that the distances from the posterior maxillary wall to the foramen ovale and from the anterior nasal spine to the foramen ovale were statistically significantly larger in men than women. The distance from the base of the lateral pterygoid plate to the foramen ovale, and the angle between the foramen ovale, the anterior nasal spine and the sphenoid rostrum, were constant between the sexes. The importance of the lateral pterygoid plate in locating the foramen ovale was demonstrated. Conclusion: With the increasing popularity of image guidance and assisted navigation in endoscopic surgery, these findings increase anatomico-radiological understanding of the surgical approach investigated.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Although the hominid knee has been heavily scrutinized, shape variation of the medial tibial condyle has yet to be described. Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas differ in the shape of their medial femoral condyles and in their capacity for external and internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. I hypothesize that these differences should be reflected in the shape of the medial tibial condyle of these hominids. Here I use geometric morphometric techniques to uncover shape differences between the medial tibial condyles of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Humans are distinguished from the other two species by having a much more oval-shaped medial tibial condyle, while those of chimpanzees and gorillas are more triangular in outline. Gorillas (especially males) are distinguished by having more concavely-curved condyles (mediolateral direction), which is interpreted as an effect of heavy loading through the medial compartment of the knee in conjunction with differences in the degree of arboreality. Anat Rec, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 08/2013;
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    The Journal of General Physiology 08/2013; 142(2):171-2.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the practical issues and the methodological procedures that must be carried out to construct and use QSAR models for predicting localization of probes in single cells. We address first the determination of probe factors starting with a consideration of the chemical nature of probe molecules present. What is their identity? Do new compounds arise in incubation media or intracellularly? For each probe, how many distinct chemical species are present? For each probe species, the derivation of the following numerical structure parameters, or descriptors, is set out with worked examples of electric charge and acid/base strength (Z and pKa); hydrophilicity/lipophilicity (log P); amphiphilicity (AI and HGH); conjugated bond number and largest conjugated fragment (CBN and LCF); width and length (W and L); and molecular and ionic weights, head group size and substituent bulk (MW, IW, HGS and SB). Next, protocol factors are specified by focusing separately on the mode of introduction of the probe to the cells, other application phenomena, and factors that influence directly observations of outcomes. Cell factors then are specified by considering separately structural and functional aspects. The next step is to select appropriate QSAR models and to integrate probe, protocol and cell factors to predict the interactions of the probe with the cell. Finally, we use an extended case example to explore the intracellular localization of certain photodynamic therapy dyes to illustrate these procedures.
    Biotechnic & Histochemistry 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Small-molecule fluorochromes are used in biology and medicine to generate informative microscopic and macroscopic images, permitting identification of cell structures, measurement of physiological/physicochemical properties, assessment of biological functions and assay of chemical components. Modes of uptake and precise intracellular localisation of a probe are typically significant factors in its successful application. These processes and localisations can be predicted using quantitative structure activity relations (QSAR) models, which correlate aspects of the physicochemical properties of the probes (expressed numerically) with the uptake/localisation. Pay-offs of such modelling include better understanding and trouble-shooting of current and novel probes, and easier design of future probes ("guided synthesis"). Uptake models discussed consider adsorptive (to lipid or protein domains), phagocytic and pinocytotic endocytosis, as well as passive diffusion. Localisation models discussed include those for cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lipid droplets, lysosomes, mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. A case example illustrates how such QSAR modelling of probe interactions can clarify localisation and mode of binding of probes to intracellular nucleic acids of living cells, including not only eukaryotic chromatin DNA and ribosomal RNA, but also prokaryote chromosomes.
    Histochemie 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The present study assessed the impact of Full Game (FG) and Time on Pitch (TOP) procedures for Global Positioning System (GPS) analysis on the commonly utilised markers of physical performance in elite field hockey. METHODS: Sixteen international male field hockey players, aged 19 to 30, were studied (giving seventy-three player analyses over eight games). Physical activity was recorded using a 5-Hz global positioning system. RESULTS: Distance covered, player load, maximum velocity, high acceleration efforts and distance covered at specified speed zones were all agreeable for both analysis procedures (p>0.05). However, percentage time spent in 0-6 km·hr-1 was higher for FG (ES: -21% to -16%; P< 0.001), whereas the percentage time in all other speed zones (1.67-3.06 m·.s-1, 3.06-4.17 m·s-1, 4.17-5.28 m·s-1 and > 6.39 m·s-1) and relative distance (m·min-1) were higher for TOP (ES: 8 to 10%, 2 to 7%, 2 to 3%, 1 to 1%, 0 to 1% respectively; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that GPS analysis procedures should be appropriate for the nature of the sport being studied. In field hockey, TOP and FG analysis procedures are comparable for distance related variables but significantly different for time dependent factors. Using inappropriate analysis procedures can alter the perceived physiological demand of elite field hockey because of 'rolling' substitutions. Inaccurate perception of physiological demand could negatively influence training prescription (for both intensity and volume).
    International journal of sports physiology and performance 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: William Hunter, a pioneering teacher of Anatomy in the the eighteenth century, championed the use of dissected specimens as aids in the teaching of anatomy. Although Hunter promoted the Paris method of learning Anatomy, by student dissection, he also used prosected material as an adjunct to his lectures. We are fortunate that Hunter bequeathed his extensive collection of over 3,000 museum specimens to the University of Glasgow, many of which are housed in the Laboratory of Human Anatomy in the Thomson Building. Regions such as the temporal bone are frequently difficult for students, and indeed postgraduate trainees in ear nose and throat surgery, to visualize and understand. Hunter overcame this difficulty by producing elegant specimens highlighting the three-dimensional complexity of the area. The current vignette stresses the importance of Hunter in his contemporary setting, but also demonstrates the potential of his approach for current and future teaching programmes in this age of the Internet. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Clinical Anatomy 02/2013;
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    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2013; 168(1):1.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Relationships between sitting height (SH) and leg length (LL) in adults are almost always studied in terms of ratios such as the Cormic Index (CI), SH/stature, rather than as primary variables. They are affected by genetics and childhood nutrition. Aim: To characterize these relationships and test whether the CI is ideal as an index of relative LL. Subjects and methods: Regression and reduced major axis (RMA) equations were calculated for 1653 men and women of European descent. For other population groups the RMA parameters were calculated from published means and standard deviations of SH and LL. Results: Linear and 'allometric' (power) equations fit the data equally well. For people of European origin the RMA equations for men and women do not differ significantly. Corresponding equations for other populations differ in line with published CIs. Conclusions: The linear equations suggest that LL tends to vary in proportion to SH minus a quantity similar to head height. A new index of relative LL may therefore be preferable to the CI for some research purposes to reflect this, but there is otherwise no strong reason to abandon the use of the CI.
    Annals of Human Biology 01/2013; 40(1):64-9.
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    British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2012; 167(7):1393-4.
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