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    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2013; 98(5):1367. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.068205
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to examine the feasibility of an endonasal, transmaxillary, transpterygoid approach to the foramen ovale by examining key anatomical, radiological and surgical landmarks. Method: Measurements were taken from 183 patients' computed tomography scans using BrainLAB iPlan 1.1 Cranial software. Endoscopic dissection was then carried out on a cadaver to assess surgical viability. Results: We found that the distances from the posterior maxillary wall to the foramen ovale and from the anterior nasal spine to the foramen ovale were statistically significantly larger in men than women. The distance from the base of the lateral pterygoid plate to the foramen ovale, and the angle between the foramen ovale, the anterior nasal spine and the sphenoid rostrum, were constant between the sexes. The importance of the lateral pterygoid plate in locating the foramen ovale was demonstrated. Conclusion: With the increasing popularity of image guidance and assisted navigation in endoscopic surgery, these findings increase anatomico-radiological understanding of the surgical approach investigated.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 10/2013; 127(11):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S0022215113002338
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    ABSTRACT: Although the hominid knee has been heavily scrutinized, shape variation of the medial tibial condyle has yet to be described. Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas differ in the shape of their medial femoral condyles and in their capacity for external and internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. I hypothesize that these differences should be reflected in the shape of the medial tibial condyle of these hominids. Here I use geometric morphometric techniques to uncover shape differences between the medial tibial condyles of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Humans are distinguished from the other two species by having a much more oval-shaped medial tibial condyle, while those of chimpanzees and gorillas are more triangular in outline. Gorillas (especially males) are distinguished by having more concavely-curved condyles (mediolateral direction), which is interpreted as an effect of heavy loading through the medial compartment of the knee in conjunction with differences in the degree of arboreality. Anat Rec, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 10/2013; 296(10). DOI:10.1002/ar.22762
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    ABSTRACT: A typical casein micelle contains thousands of casein molecules, most of which form thermodynamically stable complexes with nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate. Like many other unfolded proteins, caseins have an actual or potential tendency to assemble into toxic amyloid fibrils, particularly at the high concentrations found in milk. Fibrils do not form in milk because an alternative aggregation pathway is followed that results in formation of the casein micelle. As a result of forming micelles, nutritious milk can be secreted and stored without causing either pathological calcification or amyloidosis of the mother's mammary tissue. The ability to sequester nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate in a stable complex is not unique to caseins. It has been demonstrated using a number of noncasein secreted phosphoproteins and may be of general physiological importance in preventing calcification of other biofluids and soft tissues. Thus, competent noncasein phosphoproteins have similar patterns of phosphorylation and the same type of flexible, unfolded conformation as caseins. The ability to suppress amyloid fibril formation by forming an alternative amorphous aggregate is also not unique to caseins and underlies the action of molecular chaperones such as the small heat-shock proteins. The open structure of the protein matrix of casein micelles is fragile and easily perturbed by changes in its environment. Perturbations can cause the polypeptide chains to segregate into regions of greater and lesser density. As a result, the reliable determination of the native structure of casein micelles continues to be extremely challenging. The biological functions of caseins, such as their chaperone activity, are determined by their composition and flexible conformation and by how the casein polypeptide chains interact with each other. These same properties determine how caseins behave in the manufacture of many dairy products and how they can be used as functional ingredients in other foods.
    Journal of Dairy Science 08/2013; 96(10). DOI:10.3168/jds.2013-6831
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    ABSTRACT: Secretory diarrhoeal disease due to enterotoxins is thought to arise from the enhancement to pathologically high rates of normally occurring chloride ion and therefore fluid secretion from enterocytes. In support of this concept, many enterotoxins increase intestinal short-circuit current, regarded now as faithfully reflecting the increased chloride ion secretion. Contradicting this assumption, STa reduces absorption but does not cause secretion in vivo although short-circuit current is increased in vitro. There is therefore a mismatch between an assumed enterocyte mediated secretory event that should but does not cause net fluid secretion and an undoubtedly increased short-circuit current. It is proposed here that short-circuit current increases are not themselves secretory events but result from interrupted fluid absorption. A noteworthy feature of compounds that inhibit the increase in short-circuit current is that the majority are vasoactive, neuroactive or both. In general, vasodilator substances increase current. An alternative hypothesis for the origin of short-circuit current increases is that these result from reflex induction of electrogenic fluid absorption. This reflex enhances a compensatory response that is also present at a cellular level. An intestinal reflex is therefore proposed by which decreases in interstitial and intravascular volume or pressure within the intestine initiate an electrogenic fluid absorption mechanism that compensates for the loss of electrically neutral fluid absorption. This hypothesis would explain the apparently complex pharmacology of short-circuit current increases since many depressor substances have receptors in common with enterocytes and enteric nerves. The proposed alternative view of the origin of short-circuit current increases assumes that these do not represent chloride secretion from the enterocytes. This view may therefore aid the successful development of anti-diarrhoeal drugs to overcome a major cause of infant mortality worldwide, if short-circuit current data are being persistently misinterpreted. The putative but testable link between interstitial volume or pressure and fluid absorption also provides support for the alternative view of secretion; namely, that enhanced capillary and epithelial cell tight junctional permeability together with increased intracapillary pressure may cause secretion and not chloride exit from the enterocytes.
    Medical Hypotheses 08/2013; 81(4). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2013.07.010
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    The Journal of General Physiology 08/2013; 142(2):171-2. DOI:10.1085/jgp.201310989
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    ABSTRACT: William Hunter, a pioneering teacher of Anatomy in the the eighteenth century, championed the use of dissected specimens as aids in the teaching of anatomy. Although Hunter promoted the Paris method of learning Anatomy, by student dissection, he also used prosected material as an adjunct to his lectures. We are fortunate that Hunter bequeathed his extensive collection of over 3,000 museum specimens to the University of Glasgow, many of which are housed in the Laboratory of Human Anatomy in the Thomson Building. Regions such as the temporal bone are frequently difficult for students, and indeed postgraduate trainees in ear nose and throat surgery, to visualize and understand. Hunter overcame this difficulty by producing elegant specimens highlighting the three-dimensional complexity of the area. The current vignette stresses the importance of Hunter in his contemporary setting, but also demonstrates the potential of his approach for current and future teaching programmes in this age of the Internet. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Clinical Anatomy 07/2013; 26(5). DOI:10.1002/ca.22220
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the practical issues and the methodological procedures that must be carried out to construct and use QSAR models for predicting localization of probes in single cells. We address first the determination of probe factors starting with a consideration of the chemical nature of probe molecules present. What is their identity? Do new compounds arise in incubation media or intracellularly? For each probe, how many distinct chemical species are present? For each probe species, the derivation of the following numerical structure parameters, or descriptors, is set out with worked examples of electric charge and acid/base strength (Z and pKa); hydrophilicity/lipophilicity (log P); amphiphilicity (AI and HGH); conjugated bond number and largest conjugated fragment (CBN and LCF); width and length (W and L); and molecular and ionic weights, head group size and substituent bulk (MW, IW, HGS and SB). Next, protocol factors are specified by focusing separately on the mode of introduction of the probe to the cells, other application phenomena, and factors that influence directly observations of outcomes. Cell factors then are specified by considering separately structural and functional aspects. The next step is to select appropriate QSAR models and to integrate probe, protocol and cell factors to predict the interactions of the probe with the cell. Finally, we use an extended case example to explore the intracellular localization of certain photodynamic therapy dyes to illustrate these procedures.
    Biotechnic & Histochemistry 06/2013; 88(8). DOI:10.3109/10520295.2013.780635
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    ABSTRACT: After experimental nerve injuries that extensively disrupt axons, such as chronic constriction injury, immune cells invade the nerve, related dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), and spinal cord, leading to hyperexcitability, raised sensitivity, and pain. Entrapment neuropathies, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, involve minimal axon damage, but patients often report widespread symptoms. To understand the underlying pathology, a tube was placed around the sciatic nerve in 8-week-old rats, leading to progressive mild compression as the animals grew. Immunofluorescence was used to examine myelin and axonal integrity, glia, macrophages, and T lymphocytes in the nerve, L5 DRGs, and spinal cord after 12 weeks. Tubes that did not constrict the nerve when applied caused extensive and ongoing loss of myelin, together with compromise of small-, but not large-, diameter axons. Macrophages and T lymphocytes infiltrated the nerve and DRGs. Activated glia proliferated in DRGs but not in spinal cord. Histologic findings were supported by clinical hyperalgesia to blunt pressure and cold allodynia. Tubes that did not compress the nerve induced only minor local inflammation. Thus, progressive mild nerve compression resulted in chronic local and remote immune-mediated inflammation depending on the degree of compression. Such neuroinflammation may explain the widespread symptoms in patients with entrapment neuropathies.
    06/2013; DOI:10.1097/NEN.0b013e318298de5b
  • Journal of Fish Diseases 05/2013; DOI:10.1111/jfd.12116
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