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    ABSTRACT: This work presents two different approaches for the implementation of pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) and planar Gunn diodes on the same gallium arsenide substrate. In the first approach, a combined wafer is used where a buffer layer separates the active layers of the two devices. A second approach was also examined using a single wafer where the AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures were designed for the realisation of pHEMTs. The comparison between the two techniques showed that the devices fabricated on the single pHEMT wafer presented superior performance over the combined wafer technique. The DC and small-signal characteristics of the pHEMTs on the single wafer were enhanced after the use of T-gates with 70 nm length. The maximum transconductance of the transistors was equal to 780 mS/mm with 200 GHz maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax). Planar Gunn diodes fabricated in the pHEMT wafer, with 1.3 μm anode-to-cathode separation (LAC) presented oscillations at 87.6 GHz with maximum power of oscillation equal to −40 dBm.
    Solid-State Electronics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The flextensional class V ‘cymbal’ transducer has been widely adopted for low power ultrasonics applications, exhibiting high output displacement for low input energy, compared to a single ceramic, when used as an actuator. Despite its performance benefits, the original designs of cymbal transducers have inherent drawbacks for high power ultrasonics applications that require much higher output displacements. Asymmetries introduced during the fabrication process reduce the efficiency of the transducer, and degradation of the bonding layer between the end-caps and the electroactive material can alter the vibration response and ultimately lead to failure. A new design of the cymbal transducer is therefore proposed that delivers high output displacements. A comparison is presented between a cymbal based on the original design configuration and a new cymbal, to demonstrate the effects of input voltage levels on the dynamic characteristics and vibration response of the two different transducers. For the first cymbal the end-caps are directly bonded to the piezoceramic disc using a commercial non-conductive epoxy. The second cymbal incorporates a metal ring bonded to the outer edge of the piezoceramic disc to improve the mechanical coupling with the end-caps, thereby enhancing the operational capability of the device at higher voltages, allowing for excitation of higher output displacements by removing the problems associated with failure in the epoxy layer. This design is demonstrated to be particularly suitable for power ultrasonics applications such as miniature surgical devices, for example as drilling and cutting devices for orthopaedics procedures.
    Sensors and Actuators A Physical 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In complex hydrogeological environments the effective management of groundwater quality problems by pump-and-treat operations can be most confidently achieved if the mixing dynamics induced within the aquifer by pumping are well understood. The utility of isotopic environmental tracers (C-, H-, O-, S-stable isotopic analyses and age indicators-(14) C, (3) H) for this purpose is illustrated by the analysis of a pumping test in an abstraction borehole drilled into flooded, abandoned coal mineworkings at Deerplay (Lancashire, UK). Interpretation of the isotope data was undertaken conjunctively with that of major ion hydrochemistry, and interpreted in the context of the particular hydraulic setting of flooded mineworkings to identify the sources and mixing of water qualities in the groundwater system. Initial pumping showed breakdown of initial water quality stratification in the borehole, and gave evidence for distinctive isotopic signatures (δ(34) S(SO4) ≅ -1.6‰, δ(18) O(SO4 ) ≅ +15‰) associated with primary oxidation of pyrite in the zone of water table fluctuation-the first time this phenomenon has been successfully characterized by these isotopes in a flooded mine system. The overall aim of the test pumping-to replace an uncontrolled outflow from a mine entrance in an inconvenient location with a pumped discharge on a site where treatment could be provided-was swiftly achieved. Environmental tracing data illustrated the benefits of pumping as little as possible to attain this aim, as higher rates of pumping induced in-mixing of poorer quality waters from more distant old workings, and/or renewed pyrite oxidation in the shallow subsurface.
    Ground Water 03/2014; 52(2):251-263.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to recover useful energy from waste heat has increased rapidly in recent years with applications ranging from microwatts to kilowatts. Several thermoelectric modules can be connected in series and/or parallel (forming an array) to provide the required voltage and/or current. In most TEG systems the individual thermoelectric modules are subject to temperature mismatch due to operating conditions. Variability of the electro-thermal performance and mechanical clamping pressure of individual TEG modules are also sufficient to cause a significant mismatch. Consequently, when in operation each TEG in the array will have a different electrical operating point at which maximum energy can be extracted and problems of decreased power output arise. This work analyses the impact of thermal imbalance on the power produced at module and system level in a TEG array. Experimental results clearly illustrate the issue and a theoretical model is presented to quantify the impact. The authors believe the experimental results presented in this paper are the first to validate a rigorous examination of the impact of mismatched operating temperatures on the power output of an array of thermoelectric generators.
    Applied Energy 01/2014; 123:47 - 54.
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    ABSTRACT: A numerical investigation has been carried out applying single phase approach on turbulent forced convection flow of water based Al2O3 and TiO2 nanofluids flowing through a horizontal circular pipe under uniform heat flux boundary condition applied to the wall. The effect of volume concentrations, Brownian motion and size diameter of nanoparticles on flow and heat transfer have been examined for Reynolds number, Re = 10 × 103 to 100 × 103, Prandtl number, Pr = 7.04 to 20.29, nanoparticle volume concentration, χ = 4% and 6% and nanoparticles size diameter, dp = 10, 20, 30 and 40 nm respectively. Results reveal that the small size of nanoparticles with their Brownian motion has the highest average shear stress ratio, heat transfer rate and thermal performance factor for χ = 6%. Besides, it is found that the heat transfer rate increases as the particle volume concentration and Reynolds number increase with a decrease of nanoparticles size diameter. Moreover, Al2O3 water nanofluid shows a higher heat transfer rate compared to that of TiO2–water nanofluid. Finally, a conclusion has been drawn from the present analysis that the heat transfer performance is more affected by the size diameter and Brownian motion of nanoparticles than the thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Results of the non-dimensional fully developed velocity and turbulent kinetic energy, frictional factor and average Nusselt number for pure fluid (water) as well as the result of average Nusselt number for Al2O3 and TiO2–water nanofluid have been validated with published experimental results as well as with available correlations where a reasonable good agreement has been achieved.
    International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent interest in the use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to recover waste heat in large-scale applications calls for precise simulation to appropriately design complicated and dynamic systems. The aim of this work is to develop a computer tool to accurately simulate the thermal and electrical dynamics of a real thermoelectric (TE) power generating system. The computer-aided model presented here is able to accurately simulate the non-linear electro-thermal coupled effects which occur during changes in the operating conditions, e.g. temperature or load changes. Simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained from a real TE system. The comparison shows great accuracy both during transients and in the steady-state, thus validating the model as a reliable tool to simulate TE generating systems.
    Applied Energy 01/2014; 118:166 - 172.
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    ABSTRACT: Numerical simulations are performed to study the transition of the development of thermal boundary layer of air along isothermal heated plates in a large channel. In particular, the aim is to investigate the effects of the channel width on the transition of the flow under various plate temperatures. Realizable k–ε turbulence model with an enhanced wall function is employed to obtain the numerical simulations of flow and thermal fields in the channel. The channel width is varied from 0.04 m to 0.45 m and the numerical results of the maximum values of flow velocity, turbulent kinetic energy are recorded along the flow to examine the critical distance of the developing flow. Effects on the transition of the two different types of wall boundary conditions, isothermal and adiabatic, applied to the channel are also examined. The results particularly indicate that the flow transition in the isothermal cases takes later than that in the adiabatic cases.
    International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 01/2014; 76:307–316.
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    ABSTRACT: Shock wave diffraction occurs when a normal travelling wave passes through a sudden area expansion. Turbulent, compressible, and vortical are the characterising adjectives that describe the flow features, which are slowly smeared out due to the dissipative nature of turbulence. The study of this phenomenon provides insight into several flow structures such as shear layer formation, vortex development, and vortex/shock interaction whose applications include noise control, propulsion or wing aerodynamics. A large amount of research has been carried out in the analysis of shock wave diffraction mainly around sharp wedges, but only few studies have considered rounded corners. This project has the aim to examine and compare the flow features which develop around three different geometries, ramp, symmetric and rounded, with experimental incident shock Mach numbers of 1.31 and 1.59, and Reynolds numbers of 1.08×1061.08×106 and 1.68×1061.68×106. Schlieren photography is used to obtain qualitative information about the evolution of the flow field. The results show that ramp and symmetrical wedges with a tip angle of 172° behave in the same manner, which exhibit clear dissimilarities with a curved corner. The flow field evolves more rapidly for a higher incoming Mach number which is also responsible for the development of stronger structures.
    Acta Astronautica. 01/2014; 99:143–152.
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonic fields are able to exert forces on cells and other micron-scale particles, including microbubbles. The technology is compatible with existing lab-on-chip techniques and is complementary to many alternative manipulation approaches due to its ability to handle many cells simultaneously over extended length scales. This paper provides an overview of the physical principles underlying ultrasonic manipulation, discusses the biological effects relevant to its use with cells, and describes emerging applications that are of interest in the field of drug development and delivery on-chip.
    Advanced drug delivery reviews 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Damage to the spinal cord compromises motor function and sensation below the level of injury, resulting in paralysis and progressive secondary health complications. Inactivity and reduced energy requirements result in reduced cardiopulmonary fitness and an increased risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular complications. These risks may be minimized through regular physical activity. It is proposed that such activity should begin at the earliest possible time point after injury, before extensive neuromuscular degeneration has occurred. Robotic-assisted tilt-table therapy may be used during early-stage spinal cord injury (SCI) to facilitate stepping training, before orthostatic stability has been achieved. This study investigates whether such a stimulus may be used to maintain pulmonary and coronary health by describing the acute responses of patients with early-stage (<1 yr) motor-complete SCI (cSCI) and motor-incomplete SCI (iSCI) to passive, active, and electrically stimulated robotic-assisted stepping. Active participation was found to elicit an increased response from iSCI patients. The addition of electrical stimulation did not consistently elicit further increases. Extensive muscle atrophy was found to have occurred in those patients with cSCI, thereby limiting the potential effectiveness of electrical stimulation. Active participation in robotic-assisted tilt-table therapy may be used to improve cardiopulmonary fitness in iSCI patients if implemented as part of a regular training program.
    The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 06/2013; 50(3):367-78.
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