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    ABSTRACT: The transverse skeletal effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) have previously been assessed using cone-beam CT (CBCT). However, to date the majority of studies assess the changes based on two-dimensional slice images, which under utilises the three-dimensional (3D) data captured. This study optimizes the volumetric CBCT data by generating 3D rendered surface models to quantity and visualize the immediate 3D changes of the mid-facial bone surfaces following RME. The sample consisted of 14 patients who required RME prior to fixed appliances. Pre-treatment (T0) and immediate post expansion (T1) CBCT images were taken. Following superimposition the mid face was divided into six anatomical regions. A one-sample t-test was used to determine if the differences between the two surfaces were significantly ≥0.5 mm. All regions showed a change following RME ≥ 0.5 mm. The maxillary and nasal bones showed 2.3 mm and 2.4 mm expansion respectively, followed by the zygomatic bones (1.4 mm), 2 cases showing asymmetric expansion. The use of 3D surface rendered models allows quantification and visualisation of 3D changes in the mid-facial skeleton at anatomical sites distant of RME activation. Following activation there can be a pan mid-facial expansion, including not only the maxilla but also the nasal lateral bones and zygomas. The response was highly variable and asymmetric expansion can occur.
    The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 12/2013; 13(3). DOI:10.1016/j.surge.2013.10.012
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    ABSTRACT: 'Broken mouth' periodontitis (BMP) is a painful condition of sheep grazed on rough pasture and involves periodontal infection of the incisor teeth and progressive tooth loss. This can reduce the efficiency of grazing of sheep, which contributes to malnutrition, weight loss, systemic health problems, poor quality of life and early culling from flocks. Consequently, this condition is a major economic problem to sheep farmers. However, there are no treatment or control methods available. The aim of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with BMP and oral health in sheep. Swabs were collected from the gingival pockets of three sheep with BMP and from the gingival margin of three orally healthy (normal) sheep. Bacteria were identified using culture-independent (16S rRNA gene sequencing) methods. In the normal samples, 26 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Enterobacter hormaechei (21.3% of analysed clones) and Hafnia alvei (21.3%), with uncultured (4.4%) and novel (5.0%) phylotypes also being identified. For the BMP samples, 24 phylotypes were identified. The most prevalent species were Mannheimia ruminalis (28.4%) and Moraxella caprae (13.5%), with uncultured (2.6%) and novel (24.5%) phylotypes also being identified. In conclusion, a distinct microflora is associated with BMP and oral health in sheep and M. ruminalis may be involved in the aetiology of BMP.
    Veterinary Microbiology 07/2013; 166(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.06.034
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally implicated in a subset of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT).Methods Associations between type-specific HPV antibodies were examined among 1496 UADT cancer case subjects and 1425 control subjects by estimating odds ratios (ORs) in logistic regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders. The agreement between serology and tumor markers of HPV infection, including presence of HPV DNA and p16 expression, were examined in a subset of tumors.ResultsHPV16 L1 seropositivity was associated with increased risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (OR = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 3.65; OR = 8.60, 95% CI = 5.21 to 14.20, respectively). HPV16 E6 antibodies were present in 30.2% of oropharyngeal case subjects and only 0.8% of control subjects (OR = 132.0, 95% CI = 65.29 to 266.86). Combined seropositivity to HPV16 E6 and E7 was rare (n = 1 of 1425 control subjects). An agreement of 67% was observed between HPV16 E6 serology and the corresponding presence of an HPV-related cancer: four of six HPV DNA-positive/p16-overexpressing tumors were HPV16 E6 antibody positive. An HPV16 independent association was observed for HPV18 and oropharyngeal cancer (OR = 8.14, 95% CI = 2.21 to 29.99 for HPV18 E6 seropositivity) and HPV6 and laryngeal cancer (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.46 to 7.24 for HPV6 E7 seropositivity). Conclusions These results confirm an important role for HPV16 infection in oropharyngeal cancer. HPV16 E6 antibodies are strongly associated with HPV16-related oropharyngeal cancers. Continuing efforts are needed to consider both HPV serology and p16 staining as biomarkers relevant to the etiology and natural history of HPV16-related oropharyngeal tumors. These results also support a marginal role for HPV18 in oropharyngeal cancer and HPV6 in laryngeal cancer.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 03/2013; 105(8). DOI:10.1093/jnci/djt053
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    ABSTRACT: Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is an inflammatory disease of the oral cavity that causes severe pain and distress in affected cats. Treatment methods are currently very limited. The aims of this study were to assess the feline innate immune response by investigating the levels of cytokine and Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNAs in tissue biopsies of cats with and without FCGS, and to relate this to the presence or absence of putative oral pathogens identified previously within these cats. Mucosal biopsies were collected from 28 cats with FCGS and eight healthy cats. The levels of TLR (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR9) and cytokine (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ) mRNA was determined using quantitative PCR. In the FCGS group a statistically significant increase was seen in TLR2, TLR7, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels compared to the healthy group. In cats where Tannerella forsythia was present, statistically significant increases were seen in TLR2, TLR4, TLR7, TLR9, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels compared to cats where this putative pathogen was absent. Statistically significant increases in mRNA expression were also seen in cats harbouring feline calicivirus (FCV) (TLR2, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ) and Porphyromonas circumdentaria (TLR2, TLR3) compared to cats where these putative pathogens were absent. Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pseudomonas sp. did not significantly alter the expression of any TLR or cytokine mRNAs when compared to animals who tested negative for these species, while cats colonised with P. multocida subsp. septica demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the expression of TLR7, TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNAs compared to cats free of this species. The expression of mRNA for several TLRs and cytokines is elevated in FCGS. A positive correlation was observed between clinical disease severity and the presence of FCV (p=0.001; Rho=0.58). Although the number of cats harbouring T. forsythia was low by comparison, 80% of samples in which it was present were from cases with the highest clinical disease severity. Positive correlations with clinical disease severity were seen for TLR2 (p=0.00086), TLR7 (p=0.049), TNF-α (p=0.027), IFN-γ (p=0.0015), IL-1β (p=0.004) and IL-6 (p=0.00001) mRNAs. The putative pathogens FCV and T. forsythia may be important in stimulating a host immune response to FCGS and may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.11.016
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    ABSTRACT: Transplantation of teeth has been done for hundreds of years. In the late 18th and early 19th century transplants of teeth between individuals were relatively common at specialist dental practices in London. Surprisingly tooth allotransplants have been found to last 6 years on average. In Scandinavia during the 1950 and 1960's autotransplantation of teeth began to be carried out under increasingly controlled conditions. These have proved to be very successful in long term studies with autotransplants surviving up to 45 years post-surgery. Recent developments in cone beam CT and rapid 3D prototyping have enabled the fabrication of accurate surgical templates which can be used to prepare the recipient site immediately prior to transplantation. This has resulted in a drastically reduced extra-oral time for the transplant teeth which can be expected to improve success rates further. Autotransplants provide significant advantages compared to single tooth implants and should be considered the treatment of choice in the growing child.
    The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 11/2012; 11(1). DOI:10.1016/j.surge.2012.10.003
  • Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 05/2012; 142:w13594. DOI:10.4414/smw.2012.13594
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms.
    Journal of medical ethics 04/2012; 38(11). DOI:10.1136/medethics-2011-100304
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    ABSTRACT: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012 Background.  The abuse and neglect of children constitutes a social phenomenon that unfortunately is widespread irrespective of geographic, ethnic, or social background. Dentists may be the first health professionals to recognize signs of child maltreatment (CM) and have an important role in dealing with such incidents. Aim.  To describe the training, experience, and personal views of dentists practicing in the Prefecture of Attica regarding the recognition and referral of abused and neglected children. Design.  A random sample was drawn from a target population of dentists registered with two of the largest dental associations in Greece. The dental practitioners were interviewed by two paediatric dentists using a specially designed questionnaire. Information was collected regarding their awareness on child maltreatment, the frequency of suspected incidents as well as the reasons for not reporting them. Results.  With a response rate of 83%, findings are reported from 368 interviews (54% male, mean age 43 years). Only 21% of respondents had received training on child protection at undergraduate level. Suspected abuse was 13% and suspected neglect was 35%. Only six of the 368 respondents made an official report of a suspected case of child maltreatment. The most common reason that might prevent a dentist from reporting a case was doubt over the diagnosis (44%). Ninety-seven per cent of dentists believed that recognition and referral of incidents should be part of undergraduate training. Conclusions.  Dental practitioners did not feel adequately informed on recognizing and referring child abuse and neglect cases. The low percentage of reported incidents and the lack of legislation indicate a great need for continuously educating dentists on child maltreatment as well as for setting up an organized system in Greece for reporting such incidents to protect the dentist referring the case as well as the child being victimized.
    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 03/2012; 23. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-263X.2012.01225.x
  • 01/2012; 3(1):1. DOI:10.4103/0975-5950.102135
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of adult dogs, with up to 80% of animals affected. The aetiology of the disease is poorly studied, although bacteria are known to play a major role. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with canine gingivitis and periodontitis and to compare this with the normal oral flora. Swabs were obtained from the gingival margin of three dogs with gingivitis and three orally healthy controls, and subgingival plaque was collected from three dogs with periodontitis. Samples were subjected to routine bacterial culture. The prevalent species identified in the normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups were uncultured bacterium (12.5% of isolates), Bacteroides heparinolyticus/Pasteurella dagmatis (10.0%) and Actinomyces canis (19.4%), respectively. Bacteria were also identified using culture-independent methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing) and the predominant species identified were Pseudomonas sp. (30.9% of clones analysed), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (16.1%) and Desulfomicrobium orale (12.0%) in the normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups, respectively. Uncultured species accounted for 13.2%, 2.0% and 10.5%, and potentially novel species for 38.2%, 38.3% and 35.3%, of clones in the normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups, respectively. This is the first study to use utilise culture-independent methods for the identification of bacteria associated with this disease. It is concluded that the canine oral flora in health and disease is highly diverse and also contains a high proportion of uncultured and, in particular, potentially novel species.
    Veterinary Microbiology 06/2011; 150(3-4):394-400. DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.03.001
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Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2012; ISEE 11 Collection:01402.
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The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 11/2012; 11(1). DOI:10.1016/j.surge.2012.10.003
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