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Department  of Psychology
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Department of Crop Science
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    ABSTRACT: Mathematical model of the transient heat distribution within Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) fuel element and related shutdown heat generation rates have been developed. The shutdown heats considered were residual fission and fission product decay heat. A finite difference scheme for the discretization by implicit method was used. Solution algorithms were developed and MATLAB program implemented to determine the temperature distributions within the fuel element after shutdown due to reactivity insertion accident. The simulations showed a steady state temperature of about 341.3 K which deviated from that reported in the GHARR-1 safety analysis report by 2% error margin. The average temperature obtained under transient condition was found to be approximately 444 K which was lower than the melting point of 913 K for the aluminium cladding. Thus, the GHARR-1 fuel element was stable and there would be no release of radioactivity in the coolant during accident conditions.
    Annals of Nuclear Energy 01/2014; 68:204–208.
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    ABSTRACT: To overcome the loss of structural integrity when eyeball sections are prepared by wax embedding, we experimentally modified the routine histological procedure and report satisfactorily well-preserved antero-posterior sections of whole eyeballs for teaching/learning purposes. Presently histological sections of whole eyeballs are not readily available because substantial structural distortions attributable to variable consistency of tissue components (and their undesired differential shrinkage) result from routine processing. Notably, at the dehydration stage of processing, the soft, gel-like vitreous humor considerably shrinks relative to the tough fibrous sclera causing collapse of the ocular globe. Additionally, the combined effects of fixation, dehydration, and embedding at 60°C renders the eye lens too hard for microtome slicing at thicknesses suitable for light microscopy. We satisfactorily preserved intact antero-posterior sections of eyeballs via routine paraffin wax processing procedure entailing two main modifications; (i) careful needle aspiration of vitreous humor and replacement with molten wax prior to wax infiltration; (ii) softening of lens in trimmed wax block by placing a drop of concentrated liquid phenol on it for 3 h during microtomy. These variations of the routine histological method produced intact whole eyeball sections with retinal detachment as the only structural distortion. Intact sections of the eyeball obtained compares well with the laborious, expensive, and 8-week long celloidin method. Our method has wider potential usability than costly freeze drying method which requires special skills and equipment (cryotome) and does not produce whole eyeball sections. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Microscopy Research and Technique 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the situation that women face when they require emergency obstetric care in urban Accra. The analysis clarifies the referral options available to women needing emergency obstetric care, assesses the constraints they face in accessing the obstetric referral system and identifies the drawbacks associated with the obstetric referral system for women living in informal settlements of a rapidly growing district in Ghana. This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires administered to antenatal care clinic attendees and in-depth interviews of principal healthcare personnel. Sixty-five women had referrals in their previous pregnancies of which 62 went to the referral centre at varying time intervals. Three respondents did not go due to lack of financial resources and preference for traditional services. With regard to adherence to referral advice, lack of finances was the major constraint (46.2 %) followed by client complaints about the attitudes of nurses at the referral centres (10.8 %), fear of surgery (7.7 %) and concerns about the distance to referral centres (4.6 %). Moreover, analysis identified a significant positive association between parity and time elapsed between service encounter and compliance with referral (p = 0.001). Major constraints are faced by women when they attempt to utilize referral healthcare services such as financial problems, perceived remoteness of care points, fear of surgical procedures and concerns about the discourteous attitude of nurses at the referral centres. Healthcare providers however, emphasized other elements of the climate of care such as their perceived need for increasing staff strength.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 11/2013;

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    Accra, Ghana
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