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    ABSTRACT: Although existing research has shown that depression in parents has a negative effect on parent���child interactions, the mechanisms underpinning impaired parenting are still unknown. In this editorial, we review core difficulties that have been noted in depressed individuals including reduced positive and increased negative affect, poor emotion regulation, executive function deficits, reduced motivation and rumination, and discuss how each of these can alter parenting. We suggest that these causal processes are inter-related and can interact with one another in affecting parenting. We conclude that an improved understanding of these processes will have implications for the development of more specific and potentially more effective treatments that have the potential to break the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology.
    Psychological Medicine 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Technology could support the self-management of long-term health conditions such as chronic pain. This article describes an evaluation of SMART2, a personalised self-management system incorporating activity planning and review, feedback on behaviour- and acceptance-based therapeutic exercises. Method: The SMART2 system was evaluated over a four-week trial in the homes of people in chronic pain. At conclusion, participants were interviewed to understand the experience of using and living with the SMART2 system as a therapeutic tool. Results: Qualitative analysis of the interviews found that participants liked the system and reported making associated changes to their behaviour. Goal setting and feedback were the most useful elements of the system. A third key and unexpected element was that by simulating some of the functions of a therapist, SMART2 also simulated some of the process of interacting with a therapist. Conclusions: People in chronic pain may experience positive outcomes when using a self-management system designed for behaviour change. Furthermore, some of the supportive aspects of the therapeutic context can be elicited by self-management technologies. Implications of Rehabilitation Self-management technology has the potential to assist rehabilitation by supporting goal setting and providing feedback. By simulating some of the functions of a therapist, technology can simulate some of the process of therapy during rehabilitation. People in chronic pain liked using the technology in their own home and thought it could augment services delivered by clinical practitioners. Complex programmes of therapeutic exercises delivered by technology had limited success in engaging people in chronic pain.
    Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We review evidence that supports the conclusion that people can and do learn in two distinct ways - one associative, the other propositional. No one disputes that we solve problems by testing hypotheses and inducing underlying rules, so the issue amounts to deciding whether there is evidence that we (and other animals) also rely on a simpler, associative system, that detects the frequency of occurrence of different events in our environment and the contingencies between them. There is neuroscientific evidence that associative learning occurs in at least some animals (e.g., Aplysia californica), so it must be the case that associative learning has evolved. Since both associative and propositional theories can in principle account for many instances of successful learning, the problem is then to show that there are at least some cases where the two classes of theory predict different outcomes. We offer a demonstration of cue competition effects in humans under incidental conditions as evidence against the argument that all such effects are based on cognitive inference. The latter supposition would imply that if the necessary information is unavailable to inference then no cue competition should occur. We then discuss the case of unblocking by reinforcer omission, where associative theory predicts an irrational solution to the problem, and consider the phenomenon of the Perruchet effect, in which conscious expectancy and conditioned response dissociate. Further discussion makes use of evidence that people will sometimes provide one solution to a problem when it is presented to them in summary form, and another when they are presented in rapid succession with trial-by trial information. We also demonstrate that people trained on a discrimination may show a peak shift (predicted by associative theory), but given the time and opportunity to detect the relationships between S+ and S-, show rule-based behaviour instead. Finally, we conclude by presenting evidence that research on individual differences suggests that variation in intelligence and explicit problem solving ability are quite unrelated to variation in implicit (associative) learning, and briefly consider the computational implications of our argument, by asking how both associative and propositional processes can be accommodated within a single framework for cognition.
    Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The face inversion effect (FIE) is a reduction in recognition performance for inverted faces (compared to upright faces) that is greater than that typically observed with other stimulus types (e.g., houses). The work of Diamond and Carey, suggests that a special type of configural information, "second-order relational information" is critical in generating this inversion effect. However, Tanaka and Farah concluded that greater reliance on second-order relational information did not directly result in greater sensitivity to inversion, and they suggested that the FIE is not entirely due to a reliance on this type of configural information. A more recent review by McKone and Yovel provides a meta-analysis that makes a similar point. In this paper, we investigated the contributions made by configural and featural information to the FIE. Experiments 1a and1b investigated the link between configural information and the FIE. Remarkably, Experiment 1b showed that disruption of all configural information of the type considered in Diamond and Carey's analysis (both first and second order) was effective in reducing recognition performance, but did not significantly impact on the FIE. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that face processing is affected by the orientation of individual features and that this plays a major role in producing the FIE. The FIE was only completely eliminated when we disrupted the single feature orientation information in addition to the configural information, by using a new type of transformation similar to Thatcherizing our sets of scrambled faces. We conclude by noting that our results for scrambled faces are consistent with an account that has recognition performance entirely determined by the proportion of upright facial features within a stimulus, and that any ability to make use of the spatial configuration of these features seems to benefit upright and inverted normal faces alike.
    Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006) 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This study used TMS to examine the role played by striate cortex (V1) in processing the emotional content of visual stimuli. Participants learned to discriminate two sets of body posture images. For half of each set, the posture's emotional significance (threat versus pleasant) provided a redundant cue for the discrimination; the other half were emotionally neutral. An image was briefly presented at a lateral location in the visual field where a TMS pulse produced a phosphene, or at a control location in the opposite hemifield. A TMS pulse 70-140ms after stimulus presentation at the phosphene location impaired discrimination of neutral stimuli with little effect on discrimination of emotional stimuli; the two classes of stimuli were equally discriminable when presented at the control location. The results are consistent with the proposal that emotionally salient patterns, such as social threat, can be discriminated independently of the geniculo-striate pathway.
    Neuropsychologia 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the clinical effectiveness of collaborative care with usual care in the management of patients with moderate to severe depression. Cluster randomised controlled trial. 51 primary care practices in three primary care districts in the United Kingdom. 581 adults aged 18 years and older who met ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) criteria for a depressive episode on the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. We excluded acutely suicidal patients and those with psychosis, or with type I or type II bipolar disorder; patients whose low mood was associated with bereavement or whose primary presenting problem was alcohol or drug abuse; and patients receiving psychological treatment for their depression by specialist mental health services. We identified potentially eligible participants by searching computerised case records in general practices for patients with depression. Collaborative care, including depression education, drug management, behavioural activation, relapse prevention, and primary care liaison, was delivered by care managers. Collaborative care involved six to 12 contacts with participants over 14 weeks, supervised by mental health specialists. Usual care was family doctors' standard clinical practice. Depression symptoms (patient health questionnaire 9; PHQ-9), anxiety (generalised anxiety disorder 7; GAD-7), and quality of life (short form 36 questionnaire; SF-36) at four and 12 months; satisfaction with service quality (client satisfaction questionnaire; CSQ-8) at four months. 276 participants were allocated to collaborative care and 305 allocated to usual care. At four months, mean depression score was 11.1 (standard deviation 7.3) for the collaborative care group and 12.7 (6.8) for the usual care group. After adjustment for baseline depression, mean depression score was 1.33 PHQ-9 points lower (95% confidence interval 0.35 to 2.31, P=0.009) in participants receiving collaborative care than in those receiving usual care at four months, and 1.36 points lower (0.07 to 2.64, P=0.04) at 12 months. Quality of mental health but not physical health was significantly better for collaborative care than for usual care at four months, but not 12 months. Anxiety did not differ between groups. Participants receiving collaborative care were significantly more satisfied with treatment than those receiving usual care. The number needed to treat for one patient to drop below the accepted diagnostic threshold for depression on the PHQ-9 was 8.4 immediately after treatment, and 6.5 at 12 months. Collaborative care has persistent positive effects up to 12 months after initiation of the intervention and is preferred by patients over usual care. ISRCTN32829227.
    BMJ (online) 08/2013; 347:f4913.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Aging is associated with deterioration in health and well-being, but previous research suggests that this can be attenuated by maintaining group memberships and the valued social identities associated with them. In this regard, religious identification may be especially beneficial in helping individuals withstand the challenges of aging, partly because religious identity serves as a basis for a wider social network of other group memberships. This paper aims to examine relationships between religion (identification and group membership) and well-being among older adults. The contribution of having and maintaining multiple group memberships in mediating these relationships is assessed, and also compared to patterns associated with other group memberships (social and exercise). Method: Study 1 (N = 42) surveyed older adults living in residential care homes in Canada, who completed measures of religious identity, other group memberships, and depression. Study 2 (N = 7021) longitudinally assessed older adults in the UK on similar measures, but with the addition of perceived physical health. Results: In Study 1, religious identification was associated with fewer depressive symptoms, and membership in multiple groups mediated that relationship. However, no relationships between social or exercise groups and mental health were evident. Study 2 replicated these patterns, but additionally, maintaining multiple group memberships over time partially mediated the relationship between religious group membership and physical health. Conclusion: Together these findings suggest that religious social networks are an especially valuable source of social capital among older adults, supporting well-being directly and by promoting additional group memberships (including those that are non-religious).
    Aging and Mental Health 05/2013;
  • BMJ (online) 03/2013; 346:f1904.
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital prosopagnosia is a condition that, present from an early age, makes it difficult for an individual to recognise someone from his or her face. Typically, research into prosopagnosia has employed static images that do not contain the extra information we can obtain from moving faces and, as a result, very little is known about the role of facial motion for identity processing in prosopagnosia. Two experiments comparing the performance of four congenital prosopagnosics with that of age matched and younger controls on their ability to learn and recognise (Experiment 1) and match (Experiment 2) novel faces are reported. It was found that younger controls' recognition memory performance increased with dynamic presentation, however only one of the four prosopagnosics showed any improvement. Motion aided matching performance of age matched controls and all prosopagnosics. In addition, the face inversion effect, an effect that tends to be reduced in prosopagnosia, emerged when prosopagnosics matched moving faces. The results suggest that facial motion can be used as a cue to identity, but that this may be a complex and difficult cue to retain. As prosopagnosics performance improved with the dynamic presentation of faces it would appear that prosopagnosics can use motion as a cue to recognition, and the different patterns for the face inversion effect that occurred in the prosopagnosics for static and dynamic faces suggests that the mechanisms used for dynamic facial motion recognition are dissociable from static mechanisms.
    Neuropsychologia 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Brain-potential correlates of response conflict are well documented, but those of task conflict are not. Task-switching studies have suggested a plausible correlate of task conflict-a poststimulus posterior negativity-however, in such paradigms the negativity may also reflect poststimulus task-set reconfiguration postulated in some models. Here, participants alternated between single-task blocks of classifying letters and digits; hence, no within-block task-set reconfiguration was required. Presenting letters alongside digits slowed responses to the digits and elicited an ERP negativity from ∼350 ms, relative to task-neutral symbols presented alongside digits, consistent with task conflict. The negativity was also present for congruent digit-letter stimuli; this and the lack of behavioral response congruency effects indicate conflict at the level of task-set rather than response selection.
    Psychophysiology 01/2013;
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