Publication HistoryView all

  • The Lancet 03/2013; 381(9870):898-9. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60662-5
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is reputed to have transformed botanical practice by shunning the process of illustrating plants and relying on the primacy of literary descriptions of plant specimens. Botanists and historians have long debated Linnaeus's capacities as a draftsman. While some of his detailed sketches of plants and insects reveal a sure hand, his more general drawings of landscapes and people seem ill-executed. The overwhelming consensus, based mostly on his Lapland diary (1732), is that Linnaeus could not draw. Little has been said, however, on the role of drawing and other visual representations in Linnaeus's daily work as seen in his other numerous manuscripts. These manuscripts, held mostly at the Linnean Society of London, are peppered with sketches, maps, tables, and diagrams. Reassessing these manuscripts, along with the printed works that also contain illustrations of plant species, shows that Linnaeus's thinking was profoundly visual and that he routinely used visual representational devices in his various publications. This paper aims to explore the full range of visual representations Linnaeus used through his working life, and to reevaluate the epistemological value of visualization in the making of natural knowledge. By analyzing Linnaeus's use of drawings, maps, tables, and diagrams, I will show that he did not, as has been asserted, reduce the discipline of botany to text, and that his visual thinking played a fundamental role in his construction of new systems of classification.
    Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 09/2011; 41(4):365-404. DOI:10.1525/hsns.2011.41.4.365
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Le Traitté general des oyseaux est un ouvrage écrit en 1660 par Jean B. Faultrier, qui fut contrôleur des fauconneries du roi Louis XIV au sein des chasses royales. Le manuscrit, long de 787 pages et sans illustrations, fut dédié au surintendant des finances de Louis XIV, le puissant Nicolas Fouquet, juste un an avant la chute et l'emprisonnement de ce dernier. Cet article a pour but de comprendre comment Faultrier travaillait, ainsi que son objectif en publiant un tel ouvrage, qui est un des seuls textes français du XVIIe siècle concernant l'ornithologie. L'analyse du texte a révélé que Faultrier utilisa des sources diverses afin de rédiger son traité: les histoires naturelles d'Aldrovandi et de Belon, des traités de fauconnerie, des manuels italiens d'oisellerie, les récits de voyage de Thevet, et des ouvrages d'agronomie. Le manuscrit de Faultrier rassembla plusieurs facettes de l'ornithologie, et mit sur un même plan histoire naturelle, chasse et oisellerie. Bien que similaire au De avibus de Jonston (1650), ce manuscrit ne fut jamais imprimé. Dans sa forme, le traité rappelle les encyclopédies d'ornithologie de la Renaissance, alors que dans sa portée et dans ses objectifs, il préfigure les ouvrages ornithologiques du siècle des Lumières.
    Anthropozoologica 06/2011; 46(Jun 2011):7-26. DOI:10.5252/az2011n1a1
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The long-standing debate about the power of the British prime minister has focused excessively on formal instruments of control exercised within Whitehall. By contrast, not enough attention has been paid to the ways in which prime ministers use rhetoric, formally and informally, to maintain themselves in power and to achieve their policy aims. The term ‘rhetorical premiership’ is used here to denote the collection of methods by which prime ministers since 1945 have used public speech to augment their formal powers. Set-piece oratory remained consistently important throughout the period, in spite of new technology and the rise of the sound-bite. However, parliamentary rhetoric underwent some important changes, and prime ministers spoke outside the Commons with increased frequency. Historians of the premiership should draw instruction from those scholars who have studied the rhetoric of US presidents, although caution must be exercised when drawing comparisons. Future study of the rhetorical premiership should involve close textual analysis of prime ministerial speeches, but this should not be at the expense of archival sources, from which important insights into the speech-making process can be gleaned.
    Parliamentary History 05/2011; 30(2):175 - 192. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-0206.2011.00247.x
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sick children were ubiquitous in early modern England, and yet they have received very little attention from historians. Taking the elusive perspective of the child, this article explores the physical, emotional, and spiritual experience of illness in England between approximately 1580 and 1720. What was it like being ill and suffering pain? How did the young respond emotionally to the anticipation of death? It is argued that children's experiences were characterised by profound ambivalence: illness could be terrifying and distressing, but also a source of emotional and spiritual fulfillment and joy. This interpretation challenges the common assumption amongst medical historians that the experiences of early modern patients were utterly miserable. It also sheds light on children's emotional feelings for their parents, a subject often overlooked in the historiography of childhood. The primary sources used in this article include diaries, autobiographies, letters, the biographies of pious children, printed possession cases, doctors' casebooks, and theological treatises concerning the afterlife.
    Medical history 04/2011; 55(2):153-82. DOI:10.1017/S0025727300005743
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the run-up to the First World War, the Navy League was the main focus for navalist propaganda and the supporters of British sea power. It campaigned vigorously and noisily for the maintenance of British naval supremacy until the end of the First World War. However, by the time of the Washington naval conference in late 1921, the League's polices had been radically changed. As a result, by the winter of 1921–2, the Navy League's leadership was focused on internal dissent and revolt, rather than on the impact of the Washington Naval Treaty. What happened to the Navy League between 1919 and the summer of 1922 gives an insight into not only the collapse of British navalism but also the problems facing lobbying organizations as they attempt to adapt to changing circumstances.
    History 12/2010; 96(321):48 - 67. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-229X.2010.00506.x
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the extent of lay religious knowledge and observance in thirteenth century England, using a series of short manuscript treatises on confession inspired by the De modo confitendi of Robert Grosseteste (d.1253). These works have not been much used to study lay religion but their lists of suggested questions to ask penitents in confession tell us much about their authors’ views of lay religion and their aspirations for it. The first part of the paper introduces the texts. The second part focuses on religious knowledge. Priests were told to ask whether penitents knew certain points of Christian doctrine, and the paper argues that at least some penitents were assumed to know more than historians have often suggested. The third part of the paper examines the religious practices that the authors of these confession treatises hoped for from laypeople, distinguishing between practices which penitents are assumed not to have done at all (such as confirmation) and practices which penitents are assumed to do, but may do incorrectly, such as attending confession or sermons. Using these sources, the paper argues that the confession writers had high expectations of laypeople’s religious knowledge and of the religious services available to them, and that some laypeople met these expectations.
    Journal of Medieval History 12/2010; 36(4-36):327-340. DOI:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2010.09.001

  • History 09/2010; 95(320):493 - 494. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-229X.2010.00496_17.x

  • History 06/2010; 95(319):355 - 356. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-229X.2010.00490_2.x

  • History 06/2010; 95(319):357 - 357. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-229X.2010.00490_4.x
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.