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    ABSTRACT: An algebraic model relating the rate of learning to the pace of teaching and to pupil ability is described. The model accounts well for prior data on learning at different speeds and accurately predicts the learning deficit for able pupils taught in heterogeneous classes. The capacity of the model to predict changes of pace and learning from lesson to lesson is described.
    British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 08/2011; 43(1):1 - 6.
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    British Journal of Educational Psychology. 05/2011; 59(2):266 - 270.
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    ABSTRACT: Two studies are reported on an intrinsic/extrinsic motivation orientation scale for the classroom modified for physical education settings and used with British children. The modified scale used was the Motivational Orientation in Sport Scale (MOSS). Prior research with both the classroom and MOSS scale has been with American children. Study 1 (N=122) showed that for 12-year-old boys and girls the factorial structure of the MOSS did not match the hypothesised five factors from the American research. However, internal reliability of the subscales was generally adequate and there were no significant relationships between subscale scores and a measure of social desirability. Study 2 was a small-scale investigation of the MOSS in an actual physical education context. Twelve-year-old boys (N=24) participated in an endurance run task. Scores from the run were correlated in the expected direction with three of the subscales.
    British Journal of Educational Psychology. 05/2011; 62(2):247 - 256.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper is concerned with the practical implications of assessing the arts through talk. The use of talk in the assessment process was a focus of enquiry in the research project, ‘Assessing Achievement in the Arts’, from which the data in this paper originated. A sample of 25 teachers who were committed to the principle of formative assessment was recruited. They were provided with a schema for a structured assessment conversation. The teachers' assessment conversations with their pupils were recorded and analysed. The teachers had difficulty putting their ideas into practice. The difficulties described here centre on the way the teachers' pedagogical styles affected the quality of the conversations. Three elements emerged as being significant: (1) teacher perception of the pupil-teacher relationship, (2) teacher attitude towards his/her role as assessor and (3) the teacher's approach to what counts as valid knowledge in the classroom. Finally the issues raised by these difficulties, specifically the inter-active relationship between teacher and learner are discussed.
    British Journal of Educational Psychology. 05/2011; 64(1):145 - 160.
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    ABSTRACT: The structures underlying the continued word associations to 15 concept words drawn from mechanics were investigated in samples (N=20) ranging from secondary school first-formers to university science graduates. Substantial re-test stability of group structures was established and comparison of the structures with various theoretical schemes showed that a hierarchical model was a good representation for those knowledgeable in physics.
    British Journal of Educational Psychology. 05/2011; 46(2):174 - 183.
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    ABSTRACT: The design of curricula on the basis of academic subjects rests in part on the assumption that different subjects are associated with different modes of knowing, that is to say, with different forms of constructive activity. This study set out to examine this assumption in regard to young learners. A sample of 48 children aged 7–11 years was presented with learning materials in the domains of English, mathematics and science and required to provide verbal protocols of their intellectual engagements with the experiences. The protocol data were analysed using a scale of constructive activity the categories of which had been grounded in think-aloud responses. No differences were found in levels of constructive activity between the academic subjects. Each subject was associated with low levels of intellectual engagement. The implications of these conclusions are discussed in terms of theories of classroom work.
    British Journal of Educational Psychology. 05/2011; 65(4):465 - 475.
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    ABSTRACT: The central focus of the paper is the nature of the mental representations of the meaning of the linguistic expressions of mathematics. An information-processing model for the construction of mental representations is presented. The model provides syntactical tree structures as meaning representations. It is argued that the major function of written mathematical language in school mathematics is in the initial presentations of pupil tasks. An information-processing model for the performance of routine mathematical tasks is proposed. The central feature of the model is the major role that transformations of mental representations play. The overall model is related to children's conceptual development, and a series of stages in the acquisition of mathematical language is proposed. Finally, the model is shown to be consistent with a range of current concepts, theories and observational data.
    British Journal of Educational Psychology. 05/2011; 57(3):343 - 370.
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    ABSTRACT: Members of eight inter-professional teams working in different areas of children’s services discussed their thoughts on three types of inter-professional dilemmas. Participants described resolutions to dilemmas in terms of the construction and pursuit of joint goals. However, emergent themes included identity, power, territory and expertise. These arise from professionals’ everyday roles and activities and can directly influence construction and pursuit of joint goals. Successful collaboration, therefore, may entail some degree of professional self-sacrifice in these areas.
    Children &amp Society 02/2011; 25(2):151 - 163.
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    ABSTRACT: Performance in sport takes place within a matrix of bio-cultural characteristics but boys' success in elite youth sport is underpinned by a range of age-and maturity-related physical and physiological variables which act in a sport-specific manner to influence performance. Stature, body mass, and muscle mass increase with growth and maturation and earlier maturing boys are generally taller, heavier, and more muscular than boys of the same chronological age who mature later. Earlier maturing boys also benefit from changes in body shape which are advantageous in many sports. Marked increases in muscle strength and muscle power are expressed during adolescence. The muscle enzyme profile needed to promote the anaerobic generation of energy is enhanced as children move through adolescence into young adulthood. Aerobic fitness benefits from age and/or maturation-related increases in stroke volume, haemoglobin concentration, and muscle mass. These individual differences are most pronounced at 12-15 years when participation in elite youth sport is at its peak. Many boys fulfil their potential, gain great pleasure from elite youth sport and become elite adult sportsmen. Other equally talented boys are denied access to elite youth sport through selection policies which are influenced by stage of maturation or age relative to the beginning of the selection year. Others drop-out prematurely through early specialisation in a sport inappropriate for their late adolescent or adult physique. Boys are not mini-men and coaches and parents should focus on providing opportunities for all boys and on nurturing talent irrespective of the ticking of individual biological clocks.
    Medicine and sport science 01/2011; 56:1-22.
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    ABSTRACT:  The principle that emergent writing is supported by talk, and that an appropriate pedagogy for writing should include planned opportunities for talk is well researched and well understood. However, the process by which talk becomes text is less clear. The term ‘oral rehearsal’ is now commonplace in English classrooms and curriculum policy documents, yet as a concept it is not well theorised. Indeed, there is relatively little reference to the concept of oral rehearsal in the international literature, and what references do exist propose differing interpretations of the concept. At its most liberal, the term is used loosely as a synonym for talk; more precise definitions frame oral rehearsal, for example, as a strategy for reducing cognitive load during writing; for post-hoc reviewing of text; for helping writers to ‘hear’ their own writing; or for practising sentences aloud as a preliminary to writing them down. Drawing on a systematic review of the literature and video data from an empirical study, the paper will offer a theoretical conceptualisation of oral rehearsal, drawing on existing understanding of writing processes and will illustrate the ways in which young writers use oral rehearsal before and during writing.
    British Journal of Educational Studies 07/2009; 57(3):265 - 284.
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