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    ABSTRACT: As mass production has migrated to developing countries, European and US companies are forced to rapidly switch towards low volume production of more innovative, customised and sustainable products with high added value. To compete in this turbulent environment, manufacturers have sought new fabrication techniques to provide the necessary tools to support the need for increased flexibility and enable economic low volume production. One such emerging technique is Additive Manufacturing (AM). AM is a method of manufacture which involves the joining of materials, usually layer-upon-layer, to create objects from 3D model data. The benefits of this methodology include new design freedom, removal of tooling requirements, and economic low volumes. AM consists of various technologies to process versatile materials, and for many years its dominant application has been the manufacture of prototypes, or Rapid Prototyping. However, the recent growth in applications for direct part manufacture, or Rapid Manufacturing, has resulted in much research effort focusing on development of new processes and materials. This study focuses on the implementation process of AM and is motivated by the lack of socio-technical studies in this area. It addresses the need for existing and potential future AM project managers to have an implementation framework to guide their efforts in adopting this new and potentially disruptive technology class to produce high value products and generate new business opportunities. Based on a review of prior works and through qualitative case study analysis, we construct and test a normative structural model of implementation factors related to AM technology, supply chain, organisation, operations and strategy.
    International Journal of Production Economics 01/2014; 149:194–201.
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    ABSTRACT: The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 09/2013; 25(42):423201.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the optoelectronic properties of novel graphene/FeCl3-intercalated few-layer graphene (FeCl3-FLG, dubbed graphexeter) heterostructures using photovoltage spectroscopy. We observe a prominent photovoltage signal generated at the graphene/FeCl3-FLG and graphene/Au interfaces, whereas the photovoltage at the FeCl3-FLG/Au interface is negligible. The sign of the photovoltage changes upon sweeping the chemical potential of the pristine graphene through the charge neutrality point, and we show that this is due to the photothermoelectric effect. Our results are a first step toward all-graphene-based photodetectors and photovoltaics.
    ACS Nano 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The release of carbon from tropical forests may exacerbate future climate change, but the magnitude of the effect in climate models remains uncertain. Coupled climate-carbon-cycle models generally agree that carbon storage on land will increase as a result of the simultaneous enhancement of plant photosynthesis and water use efficiency under higher atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, but will decrease owing to higher soil and plant respiration rates associated with warming temperatures. At present, the balance between these effects varies markedly among coupled climate-carbon-cycle models, leading to a range of 330 gigatonnes in the projected change in the amount of carbon stored on tropical land by 2100. Explanations for this large uncertainty include differences in the predicted change in rainfall in Amazonia and variations in the responses of alternative vegetation models to warming. Here we identify an emergent linear relationship, across an ensemble of models, between the sensitivity of tropical land carbon storage to warming and the sensitivity of the annual growth rate of atmospheric CO(2) to tropical temperature anomalies. Combined with contemporary observations of atmospheric CO(2) concentration and tropical temperature, this relationship provides a tight constraint on the sensitivity of tropical land carbon to climate change. We estimate that over tropical land from latitude 30° north to 30° south, warming alone will release 53 ± 17 gigatonnes of carbon per kelvin. Compared with the unconstrained ensemble of climate-carbon-cycle projections, this indicates a much lower risk of Amazon forest dieback under CO(2)-induced climate change if CO(2) fertilization effects are as large as suggested by current models. Our study, however, also implies greater certainty that carbon will be lost from tropical land if warming arises from reductions in aerosols or increases in other greenhouse gases.
    Nature 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63345.
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    ABSTRACT: Climate change and urbanisation are key factors affecting the future of water quality and quantity in urbanised catchments and are associated with significant uncertainty. The work reported in this paper is an evaluation of the combined and relative impacts of climate change and urbanisation on the receiving water quality in the context of an Integrated Urban Wastewater System (IUWS) in the UK. The impacts of intervening system operational control parameters are also investigated. Impact is determined by a detailed modelling study using both local and global sensitivity analysis methods together with correlation analysis. The results obtained from the case-study analysed clearly demonstrate that climate change combined with increasing urbanisation is likely to lead to worsening river water quality in terms of both frequency and magnitude of breaching threshold dissolved oxygen and ammonium concentrations. The results obtained also reveal the key climate change and urbanisation parameters that have the largest negative impact as well as the most responsive IUWS operational control parameters including major dependencies between all these parameters. This information can be further utilised to adapt future IUWS operation and/or design which, in turn, should make these systems more resilient to future climate and urbanisation changes.
    Journal of Environmental Management 07/2012; 112:1-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The longstanding dichotomy between the concepts of "focal" and "primary generalized" epilepsy has become increasingly blurred, raising fundamental questions about the nature of ictal onset in localized brain regions versus large-scale brain networks. We hypothesize that whether an EEG discharge appears focal or generalized is driven by the pattern of connections in brain networks, irrespective of the presence of focal brain abnormality. Using a computational model of a simple "brain" consisting of four regions and the connections between them, we explored the effects of altering connectivity structure versus the effects of introducing an "abnormal" brain region, and the interactions between these factors. Computer simulations demonstrated that electroencephalography (EEG) discharges representing either generalized or focal seizures arose purely as a consequence of subtle changes in network structure, without the requirement for any localized pathologic brain region. Furthermore we found that introducing a pathologic region gave rise to focal, secondary generalized, or primary generalized seizures depending on the network structure. Counterintuitively, we found that decreasing connectivity between regions of the brain increased the frequency of seizure-like activity. Our findings may enlighten current controversies surrounding the concepts of focal and generalized epilepsy, and help to explain recent observations in genetic animal models and human epilepsies, where loss of white matter pathways was associated with the occurrence of seizures.
    Epilepsia 06/2012; 53(9):e166-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Robustness, the ability of a system to function correctly in the presence of both internal and external uncertainty, has emerged as a key organising principle in many biological systems. Biological robustness has thus become a major focus of research in Systems Biology, particularly on the engineering-biology interface, since the concept of robustness was first rigorously defined in the context of engineering control systems. This review focuses on one particularly important aspect of robustness in Systems Biology, that is, the use of robustness analysis methods for the validation or invalidation of models of biological systems. With the explosive growth in quantitative modelling brought about by Systems Biology, the problem of validating, invalidating and discriminating between competing models of a biological system has become an increasingly important one. In this review, the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the tools and methods that are available for this task, and illustrate the wide range of biological systems to which this approach has been successfully applied.
    IET Systems Biology 07/2011; 5(4):229-44.
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    ABSTRACT: (abbreviated) We used HAWK-I at the ESO VLT to produce a near-infrared survey of the Carina Nebula that is deep enough to detect the full low-mass stellar population. The results of a recent deep X-ray survey are used to distinguish between young stars in Carina and background contaminants. We find that the ages of the low-mass stars (derived from color-magnitude diagrams of the invidual cluster in the Carina Nebula) agree with previous age estimates for the massive stars. About 3200 of the X-ray selected stars have masses >= 1 Msun; this number is in good agreement with extrapolations of the field IMF based on the number of high-mass stars and shows that there is no deficit of low-mass stars. The near-infrared excess fractions for the stellar populations in Carina are lower than typical for other, less massive clusters of similar age, suggesting a faster timescale of circumstellar disk dispersal than in the more quiescent regions, most likely due to the very high level of massive star feedback. Narrow-band images reveal six molecular hydrogen jets. However, none of the optical HH objects shows molecular hydrogen emission, suggesting that the jet-driving protostars are located very close to the edges of the globules in which they are embedded. This adds strong support to the scenario that their formation was triggered by the advancing ionization fronts.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2011; 530.
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    ABSTRACT: There continues to be considerable interest in the potential for applying Operational Research (OR) in less-developed countries. A recent paper provided a bibliography of published research from West Africa. This paper extends that bibliography to the other sub-Saharan nations, with the omission of South Africa. In some parts of this region, there have been numerous applications described in the literature, while in others there is very little on record. As in the earlier paper, the material has been collected from a wide range of journals, extending from the regular OR literature to many application journals. In addition to the references, the paper describes the manner of collection of this information, and discusses the resulting picture of OR in sub-Saharan Africa.
    International Transactions in Operational Research 02/2011; 18(2):149 - 182.
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