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    ABSTRACT: Research into common pool resources from the field and in the laboratory has provided a series of insights for the successful management of such resources. The consequences of action and inaction in managing common pool resources are often most strongly felt (gains or losses) by local people. Several ecosystem services can be considered CPRs but in some cases the benefits of (mis)management are enjoyed by one group while the costs are levied on another group. Here we discuss some of the key findings of the CPR literature and how these relate to key considerations for using PES as a management tool. We focus on the role that ecosystems play in regulating water flows in two basins in Tanzania where feasibility studies have been conducted for the potential implementation of PES for water. We find that the lessons from CPR research shed light on some of the key implementation problems for PES mechanisms, and provide a useful guide for highlighting important user-resource considerations especially in contexts similar to East Africa.
    Ecological Economics 04/2010; 69(6):1253-1261. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.008
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the interaction of spatial and dynamic aspects of resource extraction from forests by local people. Highly cyclical and varied across space and time, the patterns of resource extraction resulting from the spatial-temporal model bear little resemblance to the patterns drawn from focusing either on spatial or temporal aspects of extraction alone. Ignoring this variability inaccurately depicts villagers' dependence on different parts of the forest and could result in inappropriate policies. Similarly, the spatial links in extraction decisions imply that policies imposed in one area can have unintended consequences in other areas. Combining the spatial-temporal model with a measure of success in community forest management--the ability to avoid open-access resource degradation--characterizes the impact of incomplete property rights on patterns of resource extraction and stocks.
    Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 11/2008; 56(3):234-245. DOI:10.1016/j.jeem.2008.04.002
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a detailed description of a macroeconometric model of Tanzania, a small open economy at an early stage of economic development. In this economy, imports are a crucial constraint on sectoral output. Since exports are a main source of finance for imports, the export sector is modelled in some detail. The paper describes the theoretical structure of the model, provides a complete list of equations, and briefly discusses its forecasting properties.
    Economic Modelling 10/1988; 5(4-5):354-376. DOI:10.1016/0264-9993(88)90009-0
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