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    ABSTRACT: Radiolabelling of cocaine-derived 3-phenyltropanes for dopamine transporter positron emission tomography with (18) F and (11) C is reviewed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Labelled Compounds 03/2013; 56(3-4):149-158.
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid and efficient protocol to afford the title compound 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2,2-difluoroethyl tosylate ([(18)F]7b) is described. Starting from [(18)F]fluoride ion, labelling reagent 7b was obtained in good yields and a high specific radioactivity. Compound ([(18)F]7b) was then used to synthesise a prospective radiotracer for PET-imaging in dementia.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 07/2012; 10(34):6980-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid and direct: the carboxylation of boronic acid esters with (11)CO(2) provides [(11)C]carboxylic acids as a convenient entry into [(11)C]esters and [(11)C]amides. This conversion of boronates is tolerant to diverse functional groups (e.g., halo, nitro, or carbonyl).
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 02/2012; 51(11):2698-702.
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion MR data sets produce large numbers of streamlines which are hard to visualize, interact with, and interpret in a clinically acceptable time scale, despite numerous proposed approaches. As a solution we present a simple, compact, tailor-made clustering algorithm, QuickBundles (QB), that overcomes the complexity of these large data sets and provides informative clusters in seconds. Each QB cluster can be represented by a single centroid streamline; collectively these centroid streamlines can be taken as an effective representation of the tractography. We provide a number of tests to show how the QB reduction has good consistency and robustness. We show how the QB reduction can help in the search for similarities across several subjects.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 01/2012; 6:175.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a technique for predicting cardiac and respiratory phase on a time point by time point basis, from fMRI image data. These predictions have utility in attempts to detrend effects of the physiological cycles from fMRI image data. We demonstrate the technique both in the case where it can be trained on a subject's own data, and when it cannot. The prediction scheme uses a multiclass support vector machine algorithm. Predictions are demonstrated to have a close fit to recorded physiological phase, with median Pearson correlation scores between recorded and predicted values of 0.99 for the best case scenario (cardiac cycle trained on a subject's own data) down to 0.83 for the worst case scenario (respiratory predictions trained on group data), as compared to random chance correlation score of 0.70. When predictions were used with RETROICOR-a popular physiological noise removal tool-the effects are compared to using recorded phase values. Using Fourier transforms and seed based correlation analysis, RETROICOR is shown to produce similar effects whether recorded physiological phase values are used, or they are predicted using this technique. This was seen by similar levels of noise reduction noise in the same regions of the Fourier spectra, and changes in seed based correlation scores in similar regions of the brain. This technique has a use in situations where data from direct monitoring of the cardiac and respiratory cycles are incomplete or absent, but researchers still wish to reduce this source of noise in the image data. Hum Brain Mapp , 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 11/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: A procedure for the radiosynthesis of aliphatic [(18)F]trifluoromethyl groups by reacting 1,1-difluorovinyl precursors with [(18)F]fluoride ions, resulting in the equivalent of direct nucleophilic addition of H[(18)F]F, has been developed. A variety of (18)F-labelled model compounds were then obtained and two potential [(18)F]radiotracers were synthesised by a two step process starting from 1,1-difluorovin-2-yl 4-toluenesulfonate. The method is widely applicable for the synthesis of novel radiotracers in high radiochemical yields and good specific activity.
    Chemical Communications 11/2011; 47(43):11873-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It has thus been suggested that primary and/or genetic abnormalities in mitochondrial function may lead to accumulation of toxic lipid species in muscle and elsewhere, impairing insulin action on glucose metabolism. Alternatively, however, defects in insulin signaling may be primary events that result in mitochondrial dysfunction, or there may be a bidirectional relationship between these phenomena. To investigate this, we examined mitochondrial function in patients with genetic defects in insulin receptor (INSR) signaling. We found that phosphocreatine recovery after exercise, a measure of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo, was significantly slowed in patients with INSR mutations compared with that in healthy age-, fitness-, and BMI-matched controls. These findings suggest that defective insulin signaling may promote mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, consistent with previous studies of mouse models of mitochondrial dysfunction, basal and sleeping metabolic rates were both significantly increased in genetically insulin-resistant patients, perhaps because mitochondrial dysfunction necessitates increased nutrient oxidation in order to maintain cellular energy levels.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2011; 121(6):2457-61.
  • ChemMedChem 10/2010; 5(10):1686-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Accurately tracing the optic radiations in living humans has important implications for studying the relationship between tract structure or integrity and visual function, in health and disease. Probabilistic tractography is an established method for tracing white matter tracts in humans. Prior studies have used this method to trace the optic radiations, but operator-dependent factors, particularly variability in seed voxel placement and choice of connectivity threshold to select between tract and non-tract voxels, remain potential causes of significant variability. Methods using prior information to modify tract images risk introducing error by underestimating individual variability, particularly in subjects with abnormal anatomy. Finally, existing methods lack thorough validation against a histological standard, causing difficulty in evaluating individual methods, and quantitatively comparing methods. Here we describe a method for producing binary optic radiation images using an existing, well-validated tractography method. All stages are automated, including mask image generation, and thresholds are objectively selected by comparing tract images with existing probabilistic histological data in stereotaxic space. Data from two subject groups are presented; the first used to derive analysis parameters, and the second to test these parameters in an independent sample. Validation utilised a novel variant of receiver operating characteristic analysis, providing both justification for this method and a metric by which tractography methods might be compared generally. The resulting tracts match the histological data well; images generated in individuals matched the histological group data about as well as did images derived in individuals from that histological data set, with a low false positive rate.
    NeuroImage 11/2009; 49(3):2001-12.
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, inherited neurodegenerative CAG disorder characterized by marked brain atrophy. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with manual volumetry for three dimensional (3D) morphological phenotyping of ex vivo brains of R6/2 mice, the most commonly used model of HD. High resolution 3D images were acquired for 18 week old wild-type (WT) and R6/2 mice. Although overall brain volumes were the same between genotypes, decreases in volumes were found in the cortex and striatum of R6/2 mice, with significant volume increases in the lateral ventricles and globus pallidus. There was no change in the volume of the amygdala, internal capsule or hippocampal formation. There was a significant increase in signal intensity in the globus pallidus, amygdala, cortex and striatum in R6/2 mice that may reflect neuronal atrophy. This study clearly shows the potential of MRI for morphological phenotyping of rodent models of HD and other neurological diseases. Having obtained proof-of-principle for the technique using ex vivo tissue, it is now our intention to carry out in vivo measurement of developing pathology in HD transgenic mice, and correlate this with behavioral deficits.
    Neurobiology of Disease 11/2008; 33(1):12-9.
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