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  • Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 12/2014; 68(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bjps.2014.08.007

  • Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 07/2014; 67(7). DOI:10.1016/j.bjps.2014.01.034
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    ABSTRACT: Chondrosarcomas are the most common primary chest wall malignancy. The mainstay of treatment is radical resection, which often requires chest wall reconstruction. This presents numerous challenges and more extensive defects mandate the use of microvascular free flaps. Selecting the most appropriate flap is important to the outcome of the surgery. A 71-year-old male presented with a large chondrocarcoma of the chest wall. The planned resection excluded use of the ipsilateral and contralateral pectoralis major flap because of size and reach limitations. The latissimus dorsi flap was deemed inappropriate on logistical grounds as well as potential vascular compromise. The patient was too thin for reconstruction using an abdominal flap. Therefore, following radical tumour resection, the defect was reconstructed with a methyl methacrylate polypropylene mesh plate for chest wall stability and an anterolateral thigh free flap in a single-stage joint cardiothoracic and plastic surgical procedure. The flap was anastomosed to the contralateral internal mammary vessels as the ipsilateral mammary vessels had been resected. The outcome was complete resection of the tumour, no significant impact on ventilation and acceptable cosmesis. This case demonstrates the complex decision making process required in chest wall reconstruction and the versatility of the ALT free flap. The ALT free flap ensured adequate skin cover, subsequent bulk, provided an excellent operative position, produced little loss of donor site function, and provided an acceptable cosmetic result.
    International Journal of Surgery Case Reports 12/2013; 4(8):669-674. DOI:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.05.003
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    ABSTRACT: A best evidence topic in vascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed whether endovascular treatment improved peri-operative outcomes when compared to an open approach to restore arterial perfusion in acute mesenteric occlusive disease. Four hundred and ninety seven papers were identified using the reported search; of which 4 represented the best evidence to answer the question and are discussed. The evidence on this subject is limited, comprising largely of non-randomised retrospective cohort studies. The evidence suggests that endovascular treatment is associated with reduced mortality and has better short-term peri-operative outcomes, as well as longer-term survival - however many endovascular cases require subsequent open surgery. There is also conflicting evidence to suggest endovascular therapy is associated with longer ICU stays. Aside from procedural complications, factors such as patient status, time delay to diagnosis and treatment may play a greater role in determining mortality rates. In summary, endovascular therapy appears to be a feasible treatment option with post-operative complications and inpatient mortality rates lower than those seen in open surgery.
    International Journal of Surgery (London, England) 10/2013; 11(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.10.003

  • Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 09/2013; 14(16). DOI:10.1517/14656566.2013.833186

  • Science 08/2013; 341(6149):959. DOI:10.1126/science.341.6149.959-a
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    ABSTRACT: Moyamoya disease is a slowly progressing steno-occlusive condition affecting the cerebrovasculature. Affecting the terminal internal carotid arteries (ICA) and there branches, bilaterally, a resulting in a fine vascular network in the base of the brain to allow for compensation of the stenosed vessels. While there is obvious evidence of the involvement of inflammatory proteins in the condition, this has historically not been acknowledged as a causal factor. Here we describe the fundamental histopathology, genetics, and signaling cascades involved in moyamoya and debate whether these factors can be linked as causal factor for the condition or whether they are simply a secondary result of the ischemia described in the condition. A particular focus has been placed on the multitude of signaling cascades linked to the condition as these are viewed as having the greatest therapeutic potential. As such we hope to draw some novel insight into potential diagnostic and therapeutic inflammatory targets in the condition.
    Frontiers in Neurology 08/2013; 4:105. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2013.00105
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    ABSTRACT: The current diagnostic criteria for traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heavily reliant on an accurate clinical history of events. Diagnosis of mild injury relies on one or more of the following: confusion or disorientation, loss of consciousness (LOC) for 30 min or less, post-ictus amnesia for less than 24 h and/or other transient neurological abnormalities and a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). Given the nature of the condition it is obvious that significant clinical challenges remain to identify in the cases of mild TBI, and additionally to grade more severe forms so that appropriate treatment is received. The lack of clinically useful biomarkers in the serum of TBI patients is a significant barrier to improving their outlook. Discovery of such markers would aid the timely diagnosis of novel and recurrent disease in a minimally invasive manner. A PubMed search was performed to identify studies reporting serum biomarkers in traumatic brain injury. Details regarding the biomarkers analysed, specificity, indications for outcome and statistical significance were recorded. A total of 40 manuscripts reporting 11 biomarkers were identified in the literature. All but a few studies reported statistically significant differences in biomarker expression between groups. We conclude that serum biomarkers of TBI are an effective means for investigating the condition. However, the lack of novel markers identified in this mass of studies highlights the need to adopt new measure of biomarker identification.
    British Journal of Neurosurgery 07/2013; 28(1). DOI:10.3109/02688697.2013.815317
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEHuman papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection is causing an increasing number of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate whether HPV antibodies are associated with head and neck cancer risk when measured in prediagnostic sera. METHODS We identified 638 participants with incident head and neck cancers (patients; 180 oral cancers, 135 oropharynx cancers, and 247 hypopharynx/larynx cancers) and 300 patients with esophageal cancers as well as 1,599 comparable controls from within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Prediagnostic plasma samples from patients (collected, on average, 6 years before diagnosis) and control participants were analyzed for antibodies against multiple proteins of HPV16 as well as HPV6, HPV11, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, and HPV52. Odds ratios (ORs) of cancer and 95% CIs were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. All-cause mortality was evaluated among patients using Cox proportional hazards regression.ResultsHPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in prediagnostic samples for 34.8% of patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 0.6% of controls (OR, 274; 95% CI, 110 to 681) but was not associated with other cancer sites. The increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer among HPV16 E6 seropositive participants was independent of time between blood collection and diagnosis and was observed more than 10 years before diagnosis. The all-cause mortality ratio among patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.67), for patients who were HPV16 E6 seropositive compared with seronegative. CONCLUSIONHPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancers.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2013; 31(21). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2012.47.2738
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Donor site seroma formation is a common occurrence following abdominal free flap breast reconstructions. Although such seromas usually resolve spontaneously after a few weeks or months, we recently encountered 3 patients with abdominal seromas persisting for up to 2 years postoperatively. We therefore investigated possible predisposing factors in our patient group. Methods: Patients with persistent abdominal seromas, arbitrarily defined as present after 3 months following abdominal free flap harvest were identified. Their demographic characteristics, comorbidities, reconstruction details, frequency, and volume of abdominal aspirations were documented. Results: Three obese patients (Mean body mass index = 35) with an average age of 49 years bilaterally reconstructed with superior inferior epigastric artery or deep inferior epigastric artery flaps fitted the aforementioned criteria. Seroma aspirations commenced at 3 weeks and continued for a maximum of 26 months postoperatively. The average number of aspirations was 11 with a mean volume of 338 mL (range: 100-864 mL) per visit. The patients were aspirated either weekly or fortnightly depending on the speed of seroma reaccumulation and symptoms. All the 3 patients needed excision of the seroma sac to achieve permanent resolution. Discussion and conclusion: In addition to their nuisance value (notably frequent aspirations and outpatient clinic visits), persistent seromas can cause significant morbidity and eventually require surgical excision. Possible predisposing factors in our patients included obesity, bilateral reconstructions, and superior inferior epigastric artery flap harvest. Such "high risk" patients should be warned about the likelihood of persistent seromas needing repeated aspirations and possible surgical interventions for ultimate resolution.
    Eplasty 06/2013; 13:e24.
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