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    ABSTRACT: This article discusses conceptual issues and reviews knowledge about direct and buffering protective factors in the development of youth violence. Direct protective factors predict a low probability of violence, whereas buffering protective factors predict a low probability of violence in the presence of risk (and often interact with risk factors). Individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood factors are reviewed. Heterogeneity of variables, measurement, contexts, study design, sample, and other characteristics limit generalizations. However, there were various evidence-based candidates for having a direct protective or buffering protective effect such as above-average intelligence, low impulsivity/easy temperament, enhanced anxiety, prosocial attitudes, high heart rate, close relationship to at least one parent, intensive parental supervision, medium SES of the family, sound academic achievement, strong school bonding, a positive school/class climate, nondeviant peers, and living in a nondeprived and nonviolent neighborhood. The probability of violence decreases as the number of protective factors increases (a dose-response relationship). Implications for future research and practice concern adequate research designs to detect nonlinear relationships; conceptually and methodologically homogeneous studies; differentiated analyses with regard to age, gender, and other characteristics; and greater integration of longitudinal correlational research with (quasi-)experimental intervention studies.
    American journal of preventive medicine 08/2012; 43(2 Suppl 1):S8-S23.
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    ABSTRACT: Background:  This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods:  We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men were interviewed over a period of 40 years with information also gathered from their parents, peers and teachers and later from their female partners. Results:  Family factors such as having a criminal father, a disrupted family, poor supervision and relationship problems with parents predicted later IPV. Individual predictors included unpopularity, daring, impulsivity, aggressiveness and low verbal IQ. There was evidence of cumulative risk for later violence in intimate partnerships. Conclusions:  Early childhood factors predict adult male IPV. No other study has showed the predictability of IPV over a 40-year time interval in a prospective survey. The IPV men tended to have convictions for violence and tended to be unsuccessful in areas such as employment, drinking and drug use.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to examine the relationship between parental socio-economic status (SES) and adolescent substance use. The central question posed in the title is approached in two stages. First, theoretical and empirical research in this area is reviewed. Second, data from an ongoing longitudinal study of young people in England (the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study--PADS+) are used to highlight the nature of this relationship in one city. Results from discrete-time event history analyses show that when examining what predicts initiation of substance use, familial and demographic factors emerge as important predictors, but SES does not appear to be relevant. The concluding discussion focuses on whether support is found for hypotheses derived from the existing literature and implications for future research.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 04/2012; 74(7):1053-61.
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter presents the results from two systematic/meta-analytic reviews of longitudinal studies on the association of school bullying (perpetration and victimization) with adverse health and criminal outcomes later in life. Significant associations between the two predictors and the outcomes are found even after controlling for other major childhood risk factors that are measured before school bullying. The results indicate that effective antibullying programs should be encouraged. They could be viewed as a form of early crime prevention as well as an early form of public health promotion. The findings from a systematic/meta-analytic review on the effectiveness of antibullying programs are also presented. Overall, school-based antibullying programs are effective, leading to an average decrease in bullying of 20 to 23 percent and in victimization of 17 to 20 percent. The chapter emphasizes the lack of prospective longitudinal research in the area of school bullying, which does not allow examination of whether any given factor (individual, family,. or social) is a correlate, a predictor, or a possible cause for bullying. This has important implications for future antibullying initiatives, as well as implications for the refinement of theories of school bullying. It is necessary to extend the framework of the traditional risk-focused approach by incorporating the notion of resiliency and investigating possible protective factors against school bullying and its negative consequences.
    New Directions for Youth Development 03/2012; 2012(133):85-98.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the effectiveness of a group-based universal parent training program as a strategy to improve parenting practices and prevent child problem behavior. In a dissemination trial, 56 schools were first selected through a stratified sampling procedure, and then randomly allocated to treatment conditions. 819 parents of year 1 primary school children in 28 schools were offered Triple P. 856 families in 28 schools were allocated to the control condition. Teacher, primary caregiver and child self-report data were collected at baseline, post, and two follow-up assessments. Analyses were constrained to highly adherent parents who completed all four units of the parenting program. A propensity score matching approach was used to compare parents fully exposed to the intervention with parents in the control condition, who were matched on 54 baseline characteristics. Results suggest that the intervention had no consistent effects on either five dimensions of parenting practices or five dimensions of child problem behavior, assessed by three different informants. These findings diverge from findings reported by program developers and distributors. Potential explanations for the discrepancy and implications for future research are discussed.
    Prevention Science 01/2012; 13(3):252-66.
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThis paper describes significant changes to social relationships in a high security prison, including the prominent role played by faith identities and fears of radicalisation in shaping prisoner social life.Methods The study consists of a repeated sociological investigation of the nature of staff-prisoner relationships at a single site in the UK. Methods included extensive observation, the creation of a regular dialogue group with 14 prisoners, long, private interviews with 32 staff and 52 prisoners, focus groups, and surveys with 170 prisoners and 180 staff.ResultsThe study found a decline in already low levels of trust, with dramatic effects on the prison's inner life. Relationships between prisoners were fractured, more deeply hidden than in the original study, and the traditional prison hierarchy, formerly easily visible in long-term prisons, had dissolved. Longer sentences, fears of radicalisation, confusion about prison officer power, and high rates of conversion to Islam, reshaped the dynamics of prison life, raising levels of fear. Clear indications of the anxieties and social unravellings of late modern society were found.Conclusions Increased punitiveness, indeterminate sentences, the intensification of risk-oriented practices, and anxieties relating to terrorism, have deepened the tone and reshaped the practices of long-term imprisonment.
    Journal of Criminal Justice. 01/2012; 40(5):413–424.
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    ABSTRACT: AimParental depression is a strong risk factor for depression in children and is associated with offspring’s behavioral problems. Therefore, prevention measures should aim to reduce the transmission of risk to children of depressed mothers. In this paper, description and evaluation results are reported for EFFEKT-E (Entwicklungsförderung in Familien: Eltern- und Kinder-Training in emotional belasteten Familien), a prevention program to be used in the setting of mother–child rehabilitation clinics. EFFEKT-E is a family-oriented program including parent training and social skills training for pre-school children. Subjects and methodsThe evaluation study contained 375 mothers and their children. The program was evaluated in a quasi-experimental pre-post-follow-up design using instruments on parenting behavior and children’s emotional and behavioral problems. ResultsEvaluation showed satisfying out reach and implementation of the program. Compared to a treatment-as-usual condition, EFFEKT-E children exhibited less emotional disruption and hyperactivity. Mother’s sense of parental competence was promoted, problematic parenting behavior decreased. ConclusionEFFEKT-E is an evidence-based selective program which has the potential to prevent intergenerational transmission of depression. KeywordsSelective prevention–Family-oriented–Depression–Behavioral problems–Children–Depressed mothers
    Journal of Public Health 08/2011; 19(4):321-327.
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    ABSTRACT: The rationale of the Slater Selective Vocabulary Test was followed in devising a test which would indicate habitual delinquent association. Pilot work gave a list of slang words likely to be especially familiar to delinquent boys, and a test instrument was composed of these words buffered with items from the Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale. This instrument gives separate measures of knowledge of delinquent slang and of general vocabulary level. The test was administered to groups of normal and delinquent boys, and factor analysis of the results indicated that slang knowledge exists somewhat independently of general vocabulary knowledge. The delinquent group had a significantly greater slang knowledge relative to their vocabulary level than the normal boys. Proposals for further use of the technique are discussed.
    British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 07/2011; 3(1):50 - 55.
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    ABSTRACT: Separate attitude inventories for fathers and mothers relating to the upbringing of children, were used in a survey concerning 411 primary school boys representative of an urban, working-class area. Analysis of responses produced scales of authoritarianism for both fathers and mothers, and a scale of under-concern for mothers. Scores on these scales were found to be slightly related to bad behaviour in school and later delinquency on the part of the boys. The rate of parental response was rather poor, and it was shown to be significantly related to social handicap and educational and occupational status. Absence of completed inventories was found to be as much related to bad conduct and delinquency as were the attitude scales. The investigation explores the practicability of studying parental attitudes and relating them to objective criteria concerning children.
    British Journal of Educational Psychology. 05/2011; 38(3):233 - 239.
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    ABSTRACT: An eighteen item lie scale (L) was incorporated in the Junior Maudsley Personality Inventory (J.M.P.I.) and the combined instrument was administered to 161 English school children. An item analysis of the L scale was carried out separately for boys and for girls. The item-scale correlations for all of the items were satisfactory and no items had significant sex differences. The split-half reliability of the L scale was .65.The group mean L score of the girls was significantly higher than that of the boys, but there were no significant sex differences in means and S.Ds. for the Neuroticism (N) or Extraversion (E) scales, nor were these data significantly different from the published norms for the test.A significant negative correlation was found between L and N, but no significant correlation between L and E. These findings are similar to those which have been obtained with the corresponding adult scale, the Maudsley Personality Inventory (M.P.I.), as far as inter-scale relationships are concerned but with the children's Inventory the distributions of L scores are roughly normal, and this has implications for the very low scorers as well as those who score very high. The validity of the concept of ‘neuroticism’ which has been used in other studies is discussed in the light of the observed negative correlation between N and L.
    British Journal of Educational Psychology. 05/2011; 34(2):120 - 124.
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