[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are used extensively as undergraduate science lab instructors at universities, yet they often have having minimal instructional training and little is known about effective training methods. This blind randomized control trial study assessed the impact of two training regimens on GTA teaching effectiveness. GTAs teaching undergraduate biology labs (n = 52) completed five hours of training in either inquiry-based learning pedagogy or general instructional "best practices". GTA teaching effectiveness was evaluated using: (1) a nine-factor student evaluation of educational quality; (2) a six-factor questionnaire for student learning; and (3) course grades. Ratings from both GTAs and undergraduates indicated that indicated that the inquiry-based learning pedagogy training has a positive effect on GTA teaching effectiveness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in four government secondary schools in the Caribbean state of Antigua and Barbuda on students' experiences at school in relation to sexuality. Both girls and boys experienced a range of anxieties and confusions in relation to sexuality, whilst also seeing (hetero)sexual attraction as an exciting part of schooling. Sexual harassment of girls emerged as a widespread and serious (as well as 'normalised') occurrence in all the schools studied. However, the data also showed that girls were far from passive. Instead, girls demonstrated complex and contradictory responses to boys' behaviour due to their own investments in being desirable within discourses of hetero-femininity, as well as the pleasure they gained from their relationships. Both genders would clearly benefit from opportunities to discuss their needs, beliefs and desires regarding sexuality and relationships.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulty performing everyday motor tasks. It is has been suggested that children with DCD have fewer self-regulatory (SR) skills with which to acquire motor skills. This article presents the results of an exploratory study examining the development of SR competence among ten 7-9-year-old children with DCD participating in the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) program (Polatajko & Mandich, 2004). Using a quantitative observational coding method, children's SR behavior was examined and compared across intervention sessions. Results indicate that children demonstrating improved motor performance similarly demonstrated more independent and effective SR behaviors. In contrast, children whose motor performance remained relatively stable failed to demonstrate such a change. These findings suggest that CO-OP enables SR performance among children with motor performance difficulties and, as a result, facilitates improved task performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interactive whiteboards (IWBs) are usually used by teachers for whole-class teaching. This paper is based upon an ESRC-funded project1designed to investigate the value of this technology for supporting collaborative learning in the classroom. Groups of pupils used the IWB in a semi-autonomous manner when working together on science-related activities designed by the teacher. Using an analysis of video and other data from UK primary classrooms (pupils aged 8–10 years), it focuses on how the teacher may guide the children's collective learning at the IWB through the scaffolding of collaborative activities. We suggest that a distinction between ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ scaffolding is helpful, with the former happening when the teacher is present, and the latter achieved through the teacher's vicarious influence when a group is working independently. Our analysis supports the conclusions that teachers are able to scaffold children's group activities ‘directly’ and ‘indirectly’, that this promotes the development of children's ability to reason collectively and regulate their joint activities, and that the IWB provides a useful tool for enabling this process of scaffolded, collective learning.
Learning, Culture and Social Interaction. 03/2013; 2(1):42–51.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several conflict processing studies aimed to dissociate neuroimaging phenomena related to stimulus and response conflict processing. However, previous studies typically did not include a paradigm-independent measure of either stimulus or response conflict. Here we have combined electro-myography (EMG) with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to determine whether a particularly robust marker of conflict processing, the N450 ERP effect usually related to the activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC), is related to stimulus- or to response-conflict processing. EMG provided paradigm-independent measure of response conflict. In a numerical Stroop paradigm participants compared pairs of digits and pressed a button on the side where they saw the larger digit. 50% of digit-pairs were preceded by an effective cue which provided accurate information about the required response. 50% of trials were preceded by a neutral cue which did not communicate the side of response.
EMG showed that response conflict was significantly larger in neutrally than in effectively cued trials. The N450 was similar when response conflict was high and when it was low.
We conclude that the N450 is related to stimulus or abstract, rather than to response conflict detection/resolution. Findings may enable timing ACC conflict effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adults make erroneous predictions about object fall despite recognizing when observed displays are correct or incorrect. Prediction requires explicit engagement with conceptual knowledge, whereas recognition can be achieved through tacit processing. Therefore, it has been suggested that the greater challenge imposed by explicit engagement leads to elements of conceptual understanding being omitted from prediction that are included in recognition. Acknowledging that research with children provides a significant context for exploring this "omission hypothesis" further, this article reports two studies with 6- to 10-year-olds, each of which used prediction and recognition tasks. Study 1 (N=137) focused on understanding of direction of fall, and Study 2 (N=133) addressed speed. Although performance on the recognition tasks was generally superior to performance on the prediction tasks, qualitative differences also emerged. These differences argue against interpreting explicit level understanding purely in terms of omission of tacit constructs, and the article outlines alternative models that may account for the data.
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 12/2011; 111(3):351-66.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the lives of young people with disabilities in Pakistan using a household survey.
Data were collected by administering the survey to 1094 urban and rural households randomly selected from nine districts in two provinces. The survey had a roster, which captured basic demographic, anthropometric, education and labour market status information on all resident household members in the sampled households (around 9000 individuals). In addition, detailed individual-level questionnaires were administered only to those aged between 15 and 60 years. While the survey did not have an exclusive focus on issues of disability, the questions used were informative and innovative.
The findings of this survey emphasise the continued marginalisation of young people with disabilities in the areas of education, employment and marriage prospects. Additionally, reflections on the research process highlight the many challenges entailed in undertaking research on disability issues. Conclusions: Considering the high numbers of people reporting difficulties, many of them mild but which have a considerable impact on their functioning, there is a need for better health care planning and outreach. Given the lack of knowledge about people with disabilities - their incidence and status - there is a need for more rigorous research to help develop effective interventions.
Disability and Rehabilitation 06/2011; 33(11):908-21.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper uses results from a national survey of teachers in England to test a hypothesised model of teacher orientation to learning (consisting of beliefs, practice and experiences about learning) and its relationship to teacher learning change. Results from a structural equation modeling process of 1126 teacher survey responses show that teachers bring an internal, external and collaborative orientation to their professional learning. The beliefs and practices associated with these orientations are also shown to have a moderate influence, via path analysis, on teacher learning change defined as a composite outcome of change in beliefs, practices and students.
Teaching and Teacher Education 02/2011; 27(2):443-453.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neural coding by brain oscillations is a major focus in neuroscience, with important implications for dyslexia research. Here, I argue that an oscillatory 'temporal sampling' framework enables diverse data from developmental dyslexia to be drawn into an integrated theoretical framework. The core deficit in dyslexia is phonological. Temporal sampling of speech by neuroelectric oscillations that encode incoming information at different frequencies could explain the perceptual and phonological difficulties with syllables, rhymes and phonemes found in individuals with dyslexia. A conceptual framework based on oscillations that entrain to sensory input also has implications for other sensory theories of dyslexia, offering opportunities for integrating a diverse and confusing experimental literature.
Journal of Philosophy of Education 12/2010; 44(4):579 - 587.
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