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    ABSTRACT: The highly conserved Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) protein has been described as a Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] effector at the Golgi. GOLPH3 is also known as a potent oncogene, commonly amplified in several human tumors. However, the molecular pathways through which the oncoprotein GOLPH3 acts in malignant transformation are largely unknown. GOLPH3 has never been involved in cytokinesis. Here, we characterize the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of human GOLPH3 during cell division. We show that GOLPH3 accumulates at the cleavage furrow and is required for successful cytokinesis in Drosophila spermatocytes and larval neuroblasts. In premeiotic spermatocytes GOLPH3 protein is required for maintaining the organization of Golgi stacks. In dividing spermatocytes GOLPH3 is essential for both contractile ring and central spindle formation during cytokinesis. Wild type function of GOLPH3 enables maintenance of centralspindlin and Rho1 at cell equator and stabilization of Myosin II and Septin rings. We demonstrate that the molecular mechanism underlying GOLPH3 function in cytokinesis is strictly dependent on the ability of this protein to interact with PI(4)P. Mutations that abolish PI(4)P binding impair recruitment of GOLPH3 to both the Golgi and the cleavage furrow. Moreover telophase cells from mutants with defective GOLPH3-PI(4)P interaction fail to accumulate PI(4)P-and Rab11-associated secretory organelles at the cleavage site. Finally, we show that GOLPH3 protein interacts with components of both cytokinesis and membrane trafficking machineries in Drosophila cells. Based on these results we propose that GOLPH3 acts as a key molecule to coordinate phosphoinositide signaling with actomyosin dynamics and vesicle trafficking during cytokinesis. Because cytokinesis failures have been associated with premalignant disease and cancer, our studies suggest novel insight into molecular circuits involving the oncogene GOLPH3 in cytokinesis.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2014; 10(5):e1004305. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004305
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    ABSTRACT: Genes encoding plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins confer dominant resistance to diverse pathogens. The wild-type potato NB-LRR protein Rx confers resistance against a single strain of potato virus X (PVX), whereas LRR mutants protect against both a second PVX strain and the distantly related poplar mosaic virus (PopMV). In one of the Rx mutants there was a cost to the broad-spectrum resistance because the response to PopMV was transformed from a mild disease on plants carrying wild-type Rx to a trailing necrosis that killed the plant. To explore the use of secondary mutagenesis to eliminate this cost of broad-spectrum resistance, we performed random mutagenesis of the N-terminal domains of this broad-recognition version of Rx and isolated four mutants with a stronger response against the PopMV coat protein due to enhanced activation sensitivity. These mutations are located close to the nucleotide-binding pocket, a highly conserved structure that likely controls the "switch" between active and inactive NB-LRR conformations. Stable transgenic plants expressing one of these versions of Rx are resistant to the strains of PVX and the PopMV that previously caused trailing necrosis. We conclude from this work that artificial evolution of NB-LRR disease resistance genes in crops can be enhanced by modification of both activation and recognition phases, to both accentuate the positive and eliminate the negative aspects of disease resistance.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1311134110
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    ABSTRACT: The C4 photosynthesis carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) in maize has two CO2 delivery pathways to the Bundle Sheath (BS) (respectively via malate, MAL or aspartate, ASP), and rates of PGA reduction, starch synthesis and PEP regeneration also vary between BS and Mesophyll (M) cells. The theoretical partitioning of ATP supply between M and BS cells was derived for these metabolic activities from simulated profiles of light penetration across a leaf, with a potential 3-fold difference in the fraction of ATP produced in the BS relative to M, (from 0.29 to 0.96). A steady-state metabolic model was tested using varying light quality to differentially stimulate M or BS photosystems. CO2 uptake, ATP production rate (JATP derived with a low O2 / chlorophyll fluorescence method) and carbon isotope discrimination were measured on plants under a low light intensity, which is considered to affect C4 operating efficiency. The light quality treatments did not change the empirical ATP cost of gross assimilation (JATP / GA). Using the metabolic model, measured JATP / GA was compared to the predicted ATP demand as metabolic functions were varied between M and BS. Transamination and the two decarboxylase systems (NADPME and PEPCK) were critical for matching ATP and NADPH demand in BS and M when light capture was varied under contrasting light qualities.
    Plant physiology 11/2013; 164(1). DOI:10.1104/pp.113.228221
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    ABSTRACT: Salt stress often induces declination of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), partially resulted from Rubisco degradation. The chloroplast protrusions (CPs) is one of the pathways of Rubisco exclusion from chloroplasts. To explore the relationship between the Rubisco contents and CPs under salt stress, Pn, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and concentration of Rubisco, number of CPs and Rubisco-containing Body (RCBs) were investigated with two differently salt-responding varieties in this experiment. We observed that 150 mM salt treatment resulted in not only significant decrease in Pn, CE and Rubisco content, but also obvious increase in the number of CPs and RCBs in salt-sensitive variety. Under salt stress formation of CPs resulted in production of much more RCBs, which could immigrate into and combine with vacuole. It may be a kind of important mechanism for rapid degradation of Rubisco under salt stress. Our conclusion provides a new sight for how Rubisco can be fast degraded under salt stress.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 11/2013; 74C:118-124. DOI:10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.11.008
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    ABSTRACT: There is currently significant interest in engineering the two-celled C4 photosynthesis pathway into crops such as rice in order to increase yield. This will require alterations to the biochemistry of photosynthesis in both mesophyll (M) and bundle-sheath (BS) cells, but also alterations to leaf anatomy. For example, the BS of C4 species is enlarged compared with that in C3 species. Because cell and nucleus size are often correlated, this study investigated whether nuclear endoreduplication is associated with increased differentiation and expansion of BS cells. Nuclei in the BS of C4 Cleome gynandra were tagged with green fluorescent protein. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry of isolated nuclei were used to quantify size and DNA content in BS cells. The results showed a significant endoreduplication in BS cells of C. gynandra but not in additional C4 lineages from both the monocotyledonous and dicotyledenous plants. Furthermore, in the C3 species Arabidopsis thaliana, BS cells undergo endoreduplication. Due to this significant endoreduplication in the small BS cells of C3 A. thaliana, it was concluded that endoreduplication of BS nuclei in C4 plants is not linked to expansion and differentiation of BS cells, and therefore that alternative strategies to increase this compartment need to be sought in order to engineer C4 traits into C3 crops such as rice.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 11/2013; 65(13). DOI:10.1093/jxb/ert350
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide is the most stable of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is a regulator of development, immunity and adaptation to stress. It frequently acts by elevating cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]cyt ) as a second messenger, with activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+) -permeable influx channels as a fundamental part of this process. At the genetic level, to date only the Ca(2+) -permeable Stelar K(+) Outward Rectifier (SKOR) channel has been identified as being responsive to hydrogen peroxide. We show here that the ROS-regulated Ca(2+) transport protein Annexin 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtANN1) is involved in regulating the root epidermal [Ca(2+) ]cyt response to stress levels of extracellular hydrogen peroxide. Peroxide-stimulated [Ca(2+) ]cyt elevation (determined using aequorin luminometry) was aberrant in roots and root epidermal protoplasts of the Atann1 knockout mutant. Similarly, peroxide-stimulated net Ca(2+) influx and K(+) efflux were aberrant in Atann1 root mature epidermis, determined using extracellular vibrating ion-selective microelectrodes. Peroxide induction of GSTU1 (Glutathione-S-Transferase1 Tau 1), which is known to be [Ca(2+) ]cyt -dependent was impaired in mutant roots, consistent with a lesion in signalling. Expression of AtANN1 in roots was suppressed by peroxide, consistent with the need to restrict further Ca(2+) influx. Differential regulation of annexin expression was evident, with AtANN2 downregulation but upregulation of AtANN3 and AtANN4. Overall the results point to involvement of AtANN1 in shaping the root peroxide-induced [Ca(2+) ]cyt signature and downstream signalling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    The Plant Journal 11/2013; 77(1). DOI:10.1111/tpj.12372
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    ABSTRACT: During meiosis, reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosomes occurs as a result of crossovers (COs). CO frequency varies within genomes and is subject to genetic, epigenetic and environmental control. As robust measurement of COs is limited by their low numbers, typically 1-2 per chromosome, we adapted flow cytometry for use with Arabidopsis transgenic fluorescent protein-tagged lines (FTLs) that express eCFP, dsRed or eYFP fluorescent proteins in pollen. Segregation of genetically linked transgenes encoding fluorescent proteins of distinct colors can be used to detect COs. The fluorescence of up to 80,000 pollen grains per individual plant can be measured in 10-15 min using this protocol. A key element of CO control is interference, which inhibits closely spaced COs. We describe a three-color assay for the measurement of CO frequency in adjacent intervals and calculation of CO interference. We show that this protocol can be used to detect changes in CO frequency and interference in the fancm zip4 double mutant. By enabling high-throughput measurement of CO frequency and interference, these methods will facilitate genetic dissection of meiotic recombination control.
    Nature Protocol 11/2013; 8(11):2119-2134. DOI:10.1038/nprot.2013.131
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    ABSTRACT: The assembly of respiratory complexes is a multistep process, requiring coordinate expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes and cofactor biosynthesis. We functionally characterized the iron-sulfur protein required for NADH dehydrogenase (INDH) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. An indh knockout mutant lacked complex I but had low levels of a 650-kD assembly intermediate, similar to mutations in the homologous NUBPL (nucleotide binding protein-like) in Homo sapiens. However, heterozygous indh/+ mutants displayed unusual phenotypes during gametogenesis and resembled mutants in mitochondrial translation more than mutants in complex I. Gradually increased expression of INDH in indh knockout plants revealed a significant delay in reassembly of complex I, suggesting an indirect role for INDH in the assembly process. Depletion of INDH protein was associated with decreased (35)S-Met labeling of translation products in isolated mitochondria, whereas the steady state levels of several mitochondrial transcripts were increased. Mitochondrially encoded proteins were differentially affected, with near normal levels of cytochrome c oxidase subunit2 and Nad7 but little Nad6 protein in the indh mutant. These data suggest that INDH has a primary role in mitochondrial translation that underlies its role in complex I assembly.
    The Plant Cell 10/2013; 25(11). DOI:10.1105/tpc.113.117283
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    ABSTRACT: Circadian clocks provide a competitive advantage in an environment that is heavily influenced by the rotation of the Earth, by driving daily rhythms in behaviour, physiology and metabolism in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Circadian clocks comprise transcription-translation feedback loops, which are entrained by environmental signals such as light and temperature to adjust the phase of rhythms to match the local environment. The production of sugars by photosynthesis is a key metabolic output of the circadian clock in plants. Here we show that these rhythmic, endogenous sugar signals can entrain circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating the gene expression of circadian clock components early in the photoperiod, thus defining a 'metabolic dawn'. By inhibiting photosynthesis, we demonstrate that endogenous oscillations in sugar levels provide metabolic feedback to the circadian oscillator through the morning-expressed gene PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 7 (PRR7), and we identify that prr7 mutants are insensitive to the effects of sucrose on the circadian period. Thus, photosynthesis has a marked effect on the entrainment and maintenance of robust circadian rhythms in A. thaliana, demonstrating that metabolism has a crucial role in regulation of the circadian clock.
    Nature 10/2013; 502(7473). DOI:10.1038/nature12603
  • Science 10/2013; 342(6154):45-46. DOI:10.1126/science.1245010
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