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    ABSTRACT: Stress has negative effect on health and type 2 diabetes patients may be at an increased risk. Abnormally high levels of free radicals and the simultaneous decline of antioxidant defense mechanisms can increase lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the efficacy of yogic practice in geriatric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and also to compare the efficacy with the state of glycaemic control. Seventy three (73) healthy elderly patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the age group of 60 to 70 years with a history of diabetes for 5 to 10 years and with poor glycaemic control (HbA(1c) >8 %) residing in Kozhikode district were recruited for the study. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their glycaemic control. Group I with HbA(1c) 8.6-9.7 %, group II with HbA(1c) 9.8-10.7 % and group III with HbA(1c) 10.8-12.7 %. Participants did yogic practice under the supervision of experienced trainer, daily 90 minutes and for three months. Biochemical estimation of HbA(1c), glucose, lipid profile, cortisol, ferritin, malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase activity were carried out on 0 day and 90(th) day. Seventy patients participated in a comparable control session. The participants in the test group showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) decrease in glucose, HbA(1c), lipids, cortisol, ferritin, MDA and significant increase in catalase activity after yogic practice. Yoga may improve risk profiles induced by stress in geriatric patients with type 2 diabetes and may have promise for the prevention or delay in diabetes complications. And at all stages of the disease a significant improvement can be achieved by yogic practice in geriatric diabetes.
    International Journal of Yoga 01/2013; 6(1):47-54.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). 149 patients were selected, who had been referred to the Institute of Cardiology, Banglore, India, between January 2007 and June 2009 and diagnosed with CAD. Four patients did not participate in the study. Venous blood samples were taken from these cases, and agematched healthy controls who came for a master health check-up (N = 100). All were subjected to routine liver function tests including serum transaminases, enzyme immunoassays for plasminogen activator inhibitor I (PAI-I), C reactive protein (CRP), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Using ultrasonography and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, the presence of NAFLD in CAD patients was reported. CAD patients with NAFLD had significantly higher liver enzymes and marginally higher A1C levels compared to control subjects. Levels of TNF-α and PAI-I were higher in CAD patients with NAFLD compared to both female and male controls (P <0.1 and P <0.05). Levels of CRP (P <0.01 in both groups) and uric acid were increased in both group of patients (P <0.05 and P <0.01 in male and female patients, respectively). Levels of adiponectin were significantly reduced in the patients compared to the controls (P <0.05 and P <0.001) in male and female patients respectively. The increased serum levels of PAI-I and TNF-α reflected the proinflammatory status in these CAD patients which may be due to the presence of NAFLD. This could contribute additively to the development of cardiovascular events (CVD).
    Sultan Qaboos University medical journal 08/2010; 10(2):221-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To correlate the prevalence of TORCH (Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex) infections with incidence of abortion in pregnant women in the Malabar area of Kerala, in order to establish basic knowledge for future pregnancy care. Patients attending the Institute of Maternity and Child Health, Calicut Medical College, Kerala were subjected for the study. Seventy one miscarriage cases and thirty normal pregnant women were studied through their medical, clinical, and serological data. Results were analyzed using person's chi-square test. This study showed that general population of Malabar area has an infection susceptibility of 32.3% to Toxoplasma gondii, 9.6% to Rubella, 3.2% to CMV (Cytomegalovirus) and 61.3% to HSV (Herpes simplex virus) infections. This was revealed through the estimation of TORCH specific IgG. IgM specific to TORCH agents was also studied in abortion cases and was observed as T. gondii-50.7% (p<0.03), Rubella-11.3% (p<0.597), CMV-28.2% (p<0.231) and HSV-59.2% (p<0.022). When 40.8% of the miscarriage cases were showing IgM specific to one or the other TORCH agents, only 20% of the control cases possessed IgM to TORCH agents. Cross infections with more than one of the TORCH agents was observed and 5.6% of the aborted mothers were infected with all the four pathogens. The significant role of T. gondii and HSV infection on spontaneous abortion, compared to CMV and Rubella, is provided here. The increased susceptibility of the general population of Malabar to these two pathogens, substantiates this observation further. Various abortion categories are also influenced by these pathogens differently. We also observed cross infections with two or more of the pathogens in the TORCH group, with a statistical significance of p<0.003.
    African journal of microbiology research 04/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Aluminum chloride (AlCl(3); 4 mg/kg) was injected into the cerebrospinal fluid of adult rats as a one time dose. Rapid Golgi stained sections of hippocampus were examined for detailed histology of neurons in CA1, CA2, and CA3 areas. The axonal length and number of dendritic branches were seen reduced 30 days later in aluminum (Al)-injected group when compared to vehicle-injected controls. Of these perturbations, dendritic branches were seen reduced significantly. Al toxicity apparently affects neuronal connectivity in hippocampus. These perturbations are reversed by supplementing the feed with pyridoxine (8 mg/kg) for 30 days. As the loss of synaptic connectivity is a predominant feature of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease, this study may have implications in such disorders. Pyridoxine may be considered as a potent antidote to Al toxicity and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease.
    Brain Research Bulletin 03/2003; 59(6):421-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of deficiency of vitamins on early development of brain have been reviewed. Unusual developmental problems in neurogenesis specific for the brain and impairment of its functional capacities due to vitamin deficiency have been discussed. The species-specific "critical periods" in development of various systems have been mentioned. Indices such as reflex activity, locomotion, special senses, cognition and adaptive behavior were used for assessing brain maturation in experimental models and humans. Significant examples include brain anomalies in humans and other mammals caused by retinoid excess or deficit; increase in calbindin D28K, a vitamin D dependent calcium-binding protein during postnatal period in rat; hydrocephalus and exencephaly in prenatal rats and subarachnoidal or intracerebral hemorrhage in infants caused by vitamin E deficiency. Peripheral neuropathic lesions leading to infantile beriberi is caused by thiamine deficiency. Impaired growth in retinal layers leading to delay in maturation of electroretinogram and depth-perception in postnatal rats occur due to pyridoxine deficiency. Infants of severely vitamin B12 deficient mothers show abnormalities in behavior involving basal ganglia and pyramidal tract. Folic acid deficiency results in delayed maturation of the basic electroencepalographic patterns. In addition, vitamin-interactions leading to developmental errors have been pointed out. Vitamin B6 deficiency impairs vitamin B12 absorption and biotin deficiency may be aggravated by pantothenic acid deficiency. Vitamin C deficiency resulting in impaired metabolism may produce symptoms of deficiency of folic acid. Another characteristic examples is that iron absorption from dietary sources is dependent on ascorbic acid.
    Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 02/1999; 48(3):175-87.
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    ABSTRACT: The question whether or not there will be an enhanced autonomic response in terms of heart rate in female rat, during sexual encounter with male rat was investigated. The heart rate recorded from partially restrained estrous female rat before and after the snout contact by the normal male rat showed a significant rise. There was no such rise in response to the snout contact by neonatally gonadectomised male rat of the same age as that of normal male. Treatment of testosterone propionate given to the gonadectomised male twelve hours prior to the experiment did not bring about significant rise in the heart rate of the estrous female. It is apparent that the perturbation in the structure of sexually dimorphic medial preoptic area (MPOA) in the male rat as a result of neonatal gonadectomy obliterates certain essential cues such as pheromone(s), visual and ultrasound communications which normally elicit a rise in the heart rate of the estrous female during sexual encounter.
    Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology 11/1996; 40(4):335-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The neonatally gonadectomized male rats failed to show typical male clasping of the flanks of the female rat in oestrous stage and also could not achieve intromission and ejaculation when studied at 90 days of age. The replacement of testosterone propionate did not abolish the deficit in sexual behaviour observed. The multiunit electrical activity (MUA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of intact males as well as of oestrous females increased significantly in amplitude and frequency from the low basal levels during mounting, but reverted almost to the basal levels after mounting. The basal MUA in the gonadectomized male rats was of relatively high frequency and amplitude when compared to the intact males and oestrous females, and did not show significant changes during and after mounting. It is suggested that the dimorphic organization of MPOA, developing under the influence of neonatal testosterone, plays a significant role in the male sexual behaviour in adulthood.
    Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 02/1996; 45(6):459-66.
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    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition early in life impairs the development of brain as well as behavior. In the present study the behavioral effects of preweaning pyridoxine deficiency in rats, as reflected by their exploratory score, have been investigated. The results clearly indicated that the body weight of pyridoxine-deficient rats was significantly less when compared to the control rats. Besides this, the sign of maturation of sensory perceptual mechanisms like the first day of eye opening and signs of maturation of neuromotor coordination like the day of supported standing are delayed in vitamin-deficient rats. The open-field activity reflected by the exploratory score was observed to be significantly less in vitamin-deficient rats. In short, considerable effects of prenatal pyridoxine deficiency were observed in the neonatal pups as stunting of growth and in the delayed onset of neuromotor coordination as well as a low level of open-field activity. The importance of maternal pyridoxine supplementation during pregnancy has been emphasized.
    International Journal of Psychophysiology 09/1984; 2(1):39-43.
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