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    ABSTRACT: Schleswig-Holstein has always been famous as a multilingual region where up to five different languages peacefully co-exist in the same community. However, during the nineteenth century, language became a political means to suppress particular groups of people and promote others. In particular, intellectual struggle and military warfare were often followed by political reforms aimed at bringing about a change in the official and private use of language in Schleswig-Holstein. This article provides evidence from school and church inspection reports in the nineteenth century which shows how the German-speaking authorities were determined to permit only High German to be used in official domains. The use of other languages would not be allowed even though, as the inspection reports testify, both pupils and teachers frequently struggled with their competence in High German. This article thus provides a new and direct view of the multilingual situation at the lowest level of education and hence contributes to our understanding of the effectiveness of language planning measures from ‘above’.Schleswig-Holstein war schon immer berühmt als eine mehrsprachige Region, in der sich in manchen Gemeinden bis zu fünf Sprachen friedlich trafen. Im neunzehnten Jahrhundert jedoch wurde Sprache zu einem politischen Mittel, mit dem man ungewünschte Sprechergruppen unterdrücken, genehme Gruppen aber fördern konnte. Insbesondere sehen wir im Schleswig-Holstein des 19. Jahrhunderts, dass intellektuelle Auseinandersetzungen und militärische Kampagnen zu politischen Reformen führten, deren Ziel es war, den privaten und öffentlichen Sprach(en)gebrauch zu verändern. In diesem Aufsatz werden Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung von Schul- und Kirchenvisitationsberichten veröffentlicht, die zeigen, dass die deutschsprachigen Behörden in offiziellen Domänen nur das Hochdeutsche zuließen. Der Gebrauch anderer Sprachen war nicht zugestattet, auch wenn – wie die hier referierten Berichte zeigen – sowohl Schüler wie Lehrer zum Teil große Schwierigkeiten mit der Schriftsprache hatten. Dieser Aufsatz erlaubt uns somit einen neuen und direkten Zugang zu den Bildungsverhältnissen auf niedrigster Stufe und hilft uns hierdurch, die Effektivität von Sprachplanungsmaßnahmen von ‘oben’ zu messen.
    German Life and Letters 03/2011; 64(2):169 - 187.
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    ABSTRACT: One of our jobs as ‘AuslandsgermanistInnen’ is to promote an understanding of German culture in the home community. In our particular case, in the UK, this involves teaching a language and concepts which are – at least on the surface – fairly foreign to the target audience. How does the transmission of cultural and linguistic knowledge take place between motherland and linguistic enclaves? This paper will address this question with regard to the retention and loss of German culture and language by recent and settled immigrants in America at the turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century. In particular, evidence from German school grammars printed in the USA will be examined to investigate what kind of cultural references were taught to school children.
    German Life and Letters 09/2008; 61(4):497 - 512.
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