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    ABSTRACT: Ice pigging is a process used by many industries for pipe cleaning and product recovery. Ice slurries, used to form an ice pig, are generated using an aqueous solution of water and a freezing point depressant, typically salt (NaCl) at 5% salinity. The ‘thickness’ of an ice slurry is key to the ice pig’s performance, and this paper investigates a new non-invasive method of ice fraction measurement. Electromagnetic (EM) waves, with a frequency of 2.5GHz, are absorbed rapidly by water molecules, but pass through ice with little drop in intensity, due to key differences in the materials’ atomic structures. This phenomenon is exploited, and results show ice fraction can be approximated to within ± 1.2% using a VNA spectrum analyser, then mathematical manipulation and analysis. This rivals the error in calorimetry, ± 1.3%, which currently seen as the ‘gold standard’ in ice fraction measurement across the industry.
    International Journal of Refrigeration 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present a novel approach to the problem of steganography detection in JPEG images by applying a statistical attack. The method is based on the empirical Benford's Law and, more specifically, on its generalized form. We prove and extend the validity of the logarithmic rule in colour images and introduce a blind steganographic method which can flag a file as a suspicious stego-carrier. The proposed method achieves very high accuracy and speed and is based on the distributions of the first digits of the quantized Discrete Cosine Transform coefficients present in JPEGs. In order to validate and evaluate our algorithm, we developed steganographic tools which are able to analyse image files and we subsequently applied them on the popular Uncompressed Colour Image Database. Furthermore, we demonstrate that not only can our method detect steganography but, if certain criteria are met, it can also reveal which steganographic algorithm was used to embed data in a JPEG file.
    Digital Investigation 02/2013; 9(s 3–4):246–257.
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    ABSTRACT: The GTN continuous damage model is very popular in academia and industry for structural integrity assessment and ductile fracture simulation. Following Aravas’ influential 1987 paper, Newton’s method has been used widely to solve the GTN equations. However, if the starting point is far from the solution, then Newton’s method can fail to converge. Hybrid methods are preferred in such cases. In this work we translate the GTN equations into a non-linear minimization problem and then apply the Levenberg–Marquardt and Powell’s ‘dogleg’ hybrid methods to solve it. The methods are tested for accuracy and robustness on two simple single finite element models and two 3D models with complex deformation paths. In total nearly 137,000 different GTN problems were solved. We show that the Levenberg–Marquardt method is more robust than Powell’s method. Our results are verified against the Abaqus’ own solver. The superior accuracy of the Levenberg–Marquardt method allows for larger time increments in implicit time integration schemes.
    Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 09/2012; s 237–240:1–9.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the first part of a work about modal testing using meaningful measurement parameters. Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) systems are becoming largely used both in industry and university for performing vibration measurements. A reason for the success of SLDV systems can be found in their capability of measuring vibration remotely and under different environmental conditions which, when hostile, can inhibit other transducers to work correctly. Hence, SLDV system can be very practical and useful in many engineering applications. SLDV systems are being used as a contactless transducer measuring vibrations from a discrete number of measurement positions marked on the specimen whenever an optical access to it is available. Hence, the advantage of a modal test carried out using accelerometers and one carried out using a SLDV system can be: (i) the automation of the measurements and (ii) the increase of the spatial resolution of the measured modes. This suggests that SLDV systems can be used as a practical replacement of accelerometers operating the same measurement method. Continuous Scanning method is a novel approach of using contactless transducers for measuring vibrations. The most important difference between a discrete and a continuous approach is the method of measuring a vibration pattern. A discrete method measures the level of vibrations at discrete positions on a structure whereas a continuous method captures the modulation of the vibrations produced by the excited modes. This is possible when a transducer can travel across a vibrating surface. This first part of the work presents a new approach of continuous scanning measurement method using a multi-tonal excitation waveform. The paper starts from a comparison between a step and continuous scan mode to introduce a novel approach of continuous scan and multi-tonal excitation waveform. The objective of this first part of work is to present and understand that measurement parameters, such as measurement positions, and can be carefully chosen to improve the measurement technique. A laboratory test piece and a helicopter tail cone are used as examples for the application of this new measurement method approach.Highlights► Conceptual differences between stepped and continuous scanning measurement methods. ► Meaningful number of parameters for ODS measurements. ► ODS measurements using multi-tonal excitation signal and C-SLDV methods. ► A new approach for advanced modal testing using SLDV systems.
    Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 11/2011; 25(8):3027-3042.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a study of how different vibration modes contribute to the dynamics of an inclined cable that is parametrically excited close to a 2:1 internal resonance. The behaviour of inclined cables is important for design and analysis of cable-stayed bridges. In this work the cable vibrations are modelled by a four-mode model. This type of model has been used previously to study the onset of cable sway motion caused by internal resonances which occur due to the nonlinear modal coupling terms. A bifurcation study is carried out with numerical continuation techniques applied to the scaled and averaged modal equations. As part of this analysis, the amplitudes of the cable vibration response to support inputs is computed. These theoretical results are compared with experimental measurements taken from a 5.4m long inclined cable with a vertical support input at the lower end. In general this comparison shows a very high level of agreement.
    Journal of Sound and Vibration 11/2011; 330:6023-6035.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we propose that the dynamic evolution of EEG activity during epileptic seizures may be characterised as a path through parameter space of a neural mass model, reflecting gradual changes in underlying physiological mechanisms. Previous theoretical studies have shown how boundaries in parameter space of the model (so-called bifurcations) correspond to transitions in EEG waveforms between apparently normal, spike and wave and subsequently poly-spike and wave activity. In the present manuscript, we develop a multi-objective genetic algorithm that can estimate parameters of an underlying model from clinical data recordings. A standard approach to this problem is to transform both clinical data and model output into the frequency domain and then choose parameters that minimise the difference in their respective power spectra. Instead in the present manuscript, we estimate parameters in the time domain, their choice being determined according to the best fit obtained between the model output and specific features of the observed EEG waveform. This results in an approximate path through the bifurcation plane of the model obtained from clinical data. We present comparisons of such paths through parameter space from separate seizures from an individual subject, as well as between different subjects. Differences in the path reflect subtleties of variation in the dynamics of EEG, which at present appear indistinguishable using standard clinical techniques.
    NeuroImage 09/2011; 59(3):2374-92.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the latest developments of the continuous-scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (C-SLDV) measurement methods applied to rotating axially symmetric structures such as bladed discs. Measurement of vibrations of rotating structures are still difficult to perform. The main reason is due to the limitations of conventional transducers used for capturing the vibrations, these are often unable to measure and/or transfer a good quality signal remotely. The LDV became an ideal candidate to replace/aid such transducers, but only the introduction of two scanning mirrors in front of a laser head produced a step forward in measurements of vibrations of rotating targets; SLDV systems are now widely used both in industry and academic communities.This work shows how a commercial SLDV system can be used for measurement of vibrations of bladed discs under rotating conditions. The features of the scanning head, which was not modified for this study, were exploited up to the limit to achieve the synchronization between the scanner and a rotating target. The simplest tracking technique is performed when a circle-line scan pattern is synchronized with the rotating bladed disc so as to produce the point tracking measurement method. The extension of such a discrete measurement method to a full-field one is made when the laser beam is capable of tracing continuously either a line (LineScan tracking) or an area (AreaScan tracking) over the surface of the rotating structure. The development of tracking C-SLDV measurement techniques is achieved by the use of the traditional excitation methods and the development of a new excitation system, which will bring the excitation and the measurement to be in the same rotating frame of reference. Several experimental results are provided to illustrate the use of such techniques in turbomachinery industries.
    Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 11/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Parametric excitation is of concern for cables such as on cable-stayed bridges, whereby small amplitude end motion can lead to large, potentially damaging, cable vibrations. Previous identification of the stability boundaries for the onset of such vibrations has considered only a single mode of the cable, ignoring non-linear coupling between modes, or has been limited to special cases. Here multiple cable modes in both planes are included, with support excitation close to any natural frequency. Cable inclination, sag, parametric and direct excitation and nonlinearities, including modal coupling, are included. The only significant limitation is that the sag is small. The method of scaling and averaging is used to find the steady-state amplitude of the directly excited mode and, in the presence of this response, to define stability boundaries of other modes excited parametrically or through nonlinear modal coupling. It is found that the directly excited response significantly modifies the stability boundaries compared to previous simplified solutions. The analysis is validated by a series of experimental tests, which also identified another nonlinear mechanism which caused significant cable vibrations at twice the excitation frequency in certain conditions. This new mechanism is explained through a refinement of the analysis.
    Journal of Sound and Vibration 10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper compares the efficiencies of insulated gate bipolar transistor-based voltage and current source inverters. Test circuits that replicate the functionality of a single switching pole of each converter topology are used to measure the switching trajectories and loss characteristics of the semiconductor devices. These results are then used to simulate the losses for complete 3-phase voltage and current source inverters. Switching losses are shown to be dominant in the voltage source inverter whilst conduction loss is dominant in the current source inverter. It is shown that neither power converter operates more efficiently than the other over the complete operating range, with an equivalently rated voltage source inverter being preferable at lower power levels and the current source inverter being more efficient at higher power levels.
    Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2010), 5th IET International Conference on; 05/2010
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    ABSTRACT: The static and dynamic transitions between stable states for rectangular bi-stable laminated composite plates are considered. The laminated composite plates have nonsymmetric laminate configurations and are subjected to thermal curing in order to introduce residual stresses and to achieve bi-stability. As geometrically nonlinear effects occur, after curing, the plates are able to take multiple stable shapes at service or room temperature. A simple model for dynamic analysis of the snap-through phenomena is proposed based on strain field approximations for the plates. Hamilton's principle is applied in conjunction with the Rayleigh–Ritz method in order to achieve fast results. The model is used to evaluate the initial displacements for the stable states and also to investigate the static and dynamic transitions from one stable state to another. Parametric studies are carried out for various aspect ratios, laminate configurations and actuation loads and the results are compared with those obtained with finite element analysis in order to evaluate the accuracy of the model.
    Journal of Sound and Vibration 05/2009;
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16th Annual Conference of the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences, October 2014, New Delhi, India; 10/2014
Acta Hydrologica Slovaca. 01/2010; 11(1):88-96.