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    ABSTRACT: The relationship of objectively measured sedentary time (ST), frequency of breaks in ST, with lower extremity function (LEF) was investigated in a diverse sample aged ≥ 70 years (n=217). Physical activity (PA) was assessed by accelerometry deriving moderate-vigorous PA minutes per registered hour (MVPA min·h-1), registered ST (ST min·h-1), and breaks in ST min·h-1 (breaks·h-1). LEF was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery. Univariate associations with overall LEF were MVPA (r=.523), ST (r=-.499) and breaks (r=.389). Adjusted linear regression including MVPA min·h-1, ST min·h-1 and breaks·h-1 explained 41.5% of LEF variance. Each additional break·h-1 was associated with 0.58 point increase in LEF. Breaks and MVPA had strongest independent associations with LEF. Promoting regular breaks might be useful in maintaining or increasing LEF and later life independence. This novel finding is important for the design of effective lifestyle interventions targeting older adults.
    Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: There is a lack of published data about the food intake of patients with type 2 diabetes and the changes that they make in response to patient-centred dietary advice. The present study describes the changes reported in response to a nonprescriptive dietary intervention based upon UK dietary guidelines. Two hundred and sixty-two patients (87 women and 175 men) from the Early ACTivity in Diabetes (ACTID) trial who received the dietary intervention returned 4 days food diaries at baseline and 6 months. Nonparametric tests were used to examine changes in meal patterns, total energy intake and energy from food groups between baseline and 6 months. Mean (SD) number of reported meals day(-1) was 3.0 (0.3) and mean (SD) number of snacks was 1.1 (0.6) at both baseline and 6 months for men and women. Men reported decreasing energy intake by a mean (SD) of 912 (1389) KJ/day [218 (332) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001) and women by 515 (1130) KJ/day [123 (270) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001). Men reported reducing energy from alcoholic drinks [-234 (527) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001], white bread [-113 (402) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001], biscuits [i.e. cookies -67 (205) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001] and cakes [-50 (410) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.0012]. Women reported reducing energy from mixed main meals [-134 (456) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.036], pasta and rice [-79 (326) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.019], high-energy drinks [-59 (159) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001] and white bread [-59 (368) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.042]. Men and women in the Early ACTID study reported small changes in higher-energy and lower-fibre foods and drinks in response to patient-centred dietary advice.
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined if parental TV viewing, parental self-efficacy or access to media equipment were associated with TV viewing among UK preschool-aged children. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 252 parents of 3-5-year-old children. Parents reported child and parent TV viewing and the number of TVs, DVDs, computers, games consoles, hand-held games consoles, music players and laptop computers in the home. Parents also completed scales which assessed their self-efficacy to limit the screen viewing (SV) and promote the physical activity (PA) and their own PA self-efficacy. Analysis indicated that around two thirds of the children spent two or more hours per day watching TV while 75 % of parents watched ≥2 h of TV per day. Logistic regression models showed that children who had a parent who watched ≥2 h of TV per day were over five times more likely to also watch ≥2 h of TV per day. Each unit increase in parental self-efficacy to limit SV was associated with a 77 % reduction in the likelihood that the child watched ≥2 h of TV per day. Each additional piece of media equipment in the home was associated with a 28 % increase in the likelihood that parents watched ≥2 h of TV per day. Conclusion: Family-based interventions focusing on changing access to home media equipment and building parental self-efficacy to reduce child TV viewing could form part of efforts to reduce TV viewing among preschool children.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Goals are central to exercise motivation, although not all goals (e.g., health vs. appearance goals) are equally psychologically or behaviorally adaptive. Within goal content theory (Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010), goals are adaptive to the extent to which they satisfy psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. However, little is known about what exercisers pursuing different goals are feeling, doing, thinking, and paying attention to that may help to explain the association between goal contents and need satisfaction. Using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis, we explored experiences of exercise among 11 adult exercisers who reported pursuing either predominantly intrinsic or extrinsic goals. Four themes emerged: (a) observation of others and resulting emotions, (b) goal expectations and time perspective, (c) markers of progress and (d) reactions to (lack of) goal achievement. Intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuers reported divergent experiences within these four domains. The findings illuminate potential mechanisms by which different goals may influence psychological and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context.
    Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 06/2013; 35(3):308-321.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The present study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modelling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem and physical activity intentions of 11-12 year old girls. METHOD: 210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modelling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analysed using multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants' self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy and intention to be active. Maternal modelling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modelling was positively associated with self-esteem and self-efficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables. CONCLUSIONS: Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modelling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by gender or baseline body mass status. DESIGN: The article is a longitudinal analysis of pre- and post-data collected in the HEALTHY trial. Participants were 4,603 ethnically diverse adolescents who provided complete data at 6th and 8th grade assessments. METHODS: The main outcome measures were percent change in the following cardiometabolic risk factors: fasting triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose as well as a clustered metabolic risk score. Main exposures were change in BMI or WC z-score. Models were run stratified by gender; secondary models were additionally stratified by baseline BMI group (normal, overweight, or obese). RESULTS: Analysis showed that when cardiometabolic risk factors were treated as continuous variables, there was strong evidence (P < 0.001) that change in BMI z-score was associated with change in the majority of the cardiovascular risk factors, except fasting glucose and the combined risk factor score for both boys and girls. There was some evidence that change in WC z-score was associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, but change in WC z-score was consistently associated with changes in fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, routine monitoring of BMI should be continued by health professionals, but additional information on disease risk may be provided by assessing WC.
    Obesity 03/2013; 21(3):E271-E279.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between parenting quality and children's screen-time. METHODS: Data from the US National Institute Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, collected in 2001, were analysed. Videotaped interaction tasks of 874 mother-child dyads were rated for ten parenting qualities (i.e., agency, persistence, negativity, affection, felt security, affective mutuality, autonomy granting, stimulation of cognitive development, quality of assistance & hostility). Children (aged 10-11yrs) self-reported viewing on weekdays and weekends. Associations between parenting quality and TV viewing were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS: Greater felt security was associated with lower odds of watching >2hours of TV on weekdays among boys (p=0.05). High agency was associated with greater odds of watching >2hours of TV per day on weekdays among girls (p=0.02). High supportive presence and quality of child assistance was associated with lower odds of watching >2hours of TV on Saturdays (p=0.05) among girls. CONCLUSION: Child agency (i.e., self-direction and confidence) was associated with greater TV viewing whereas parenting characterised by perceived security, support and structured yet flexible guidance was associated with lower TV viewing. Parent-child interactions and communication may be an appropriate target for sedentary behavior interventions.
    Preventive Medicine 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether parental screen-viewing, parental attitudes or access to media equipment were associated with the screen-viewing of 6-year-old to 8-year-old children. Cross-sectional survey. Online survey. Parental report of the number of hours per weekday that they and, separately, their 6-year-old to 8-year-old child spent watching TV, using a games console, a smart-phone and multiscreen viewing. Parental screen-viewing, parental attitudes and pieces of media equipment were exposures. Over 75% of the parents and 62% of the children spent more than 2 h/weekday watching TV. Over two-thirds of the parents and almost 40% of the children spent more than an hour per day multiscreen viewing. The mean number of pieces of media equipment in the home was 5.9 items, with 1.3 items in the child's bedroom. Children who had parents who spent more than 2 h/day watching TV were over 7.8 times more likely to exceed the 2 h threshold. Girls and boys who had a parent who spent an hour or more multiscreen viewing were 34 times more likely to also spend more than an hour per day multiscreen viewing. Media equipment in the child's bedroom was associated with higher TV viewing, computer time and multiscreen viewing. Each increment in the parental agreement that watching TV was relaxing for their child was associated with a 49% increase in the likelihood that the child spent more than 2 h/day watching TV. Children who have parents who engage in high levels of screen-viewing are more likely to engage in high levels of screen-viewing. Access to media equipment, particularly in the child's bedroom, was associated with higher levels of screen-viewing. Family-based strategies to reduce screen-viewing and limit media equipment access may be important ways to reduce child screen-viewing.
    BMJ Open 01/2013; 3(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Many children spend too much time screen-viewing (watching TV, surfing the internet and playing video games) and do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Parents are important influences on children's PA and screen-viewing (SV). There is a shortage of parent-focused interventions to change children's PA and SV. Teamplay was a two arm individualized randomized controlled feasibility trial. Participants were parents of 6-8 year old children. Intervention participants were invited to attend an eight week parenting program with each session lasting 2 hours. Children and parents wore an accelerometer for seven days and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) were derived. Parents were also asked to report the average number of hours per day that both they and the target child spent watching TV. Measures were assessed at baseline (time 0) at the end of the intervention (week 8) and 2 months after the intervention had ended (week 16). There were 75 participants who provided consent and were randomized but 27 participants withdrew post-randomization. Children in the intervention group engaged in 2.6 fewer minutes of weekday MVPA at Time 1 but engaged in 11 more minutes of weekend MVPA. At Time 1 the intervention parents engaged in 9 more minutes of weekday MVPA and 13 more minutes of weekend MVPA. The proportion of children in the intervention group watching ≥ 2 hours per day of TV on weekend days decreased after the intervention (time 0 = 76%, time 1 = 39%, time 2 = 50%), while the control group proportion increased slightly (79%, 86% and 87%). Parental weekday TV watching decreased in both groups. In post-study interviews many mothers reported problems associated with wearing the accelerometers. In terms of a future full-scale trial, a sample of between 80 and 340 families would be needed to detect a mean difference of 10-minutes of weekend MVPA. Teamplay is a promising parenting program in an under-researched area. The intervention was acceptable to parents, and all elements of the study protocol were successfully completed. Simple changes to the trial protocol could result in more complete data collection and study engagement.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 01/2013; 10:31.
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    ABSTRACT: Social network analysis has been used to better understand the influence of friends and peer groups in a wide range of health behaviors. This systematic review synthesizes findings from various social network analyses of child and adolescent physical activity, to determine the extent to which social network structure is associated with physical activity behaviors. Medical and social science databases were searched and screened between September and November 2011. Eligible studies collected a measure of physical activity and a measure of an individual's social network, either through friendship nominations or social ratings, and reported analyses investigating the association between physical activity and the social network measure. A total of 1767 articles yielded nine publications from seven eligible studies, which were synthesized and analyzed in December 2011. Three research themes were identified: (1) friendship similarities in physical activity; (2) peer group influences on physical activity; and (3) social preference (i.e., popularity) and physical activity. Synthesis of findings across studies found strong evidence for similarities in physical activity levels between an individual and their friends and within peer groups. There was mixed evidence for an association between social preference and physical activity levels. Friendship plays an important role in shaping physical activity behaviors. Physical activity interventions targeted at peer groups and that account for the influence of friendship groups might have utility as a means of increasing youth physical activity.
    American journal of preventive medicine 12/2012; 43(6):636-42.
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