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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study investigated the mechanism of action at the interface between a commercially available Y-TZP and its veneering ceramic after final firing. Particular attention was paid, from a microstructural point of view, to evaluating the effects of different surface treatments carried out on the zirconia. Methods: In total, 32 specimens of presintered zirconia Y-TZP (LavaFrame, 3M ESPE, Germany) were cut with a low-speed diamond blade. The specimens were divided in two major groups, for testing after fracture or after mirror finishing, and were sintered following the manufacturer's instructions. Each major group was then randomly divided into four subgroups, according to using or not using the dedicated framework modifier, with or without a preliminary silica coating (CoJet, 3 M ESPE). A suitable veneering ceramic was used for each group (Lava Ceram Overlay Porcelain, 3 M ESPE). A detailed microstructural study of the interfaces of the zirconia-veneering ceramic was performed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer to evaluate chemical variation at the interfaces. Results: When the framework modifier was not applied on the Y-TZP surface, microdetachments, porosities, and openings in the ceramic layer were observed at the interlayers. A degree of diffusion of different elements through the interfaces from both the zirconia and veneering layers was detected. Conclusions: Application of the framework modifier can increase the wettability of the zirconia surfaces, allowing a continuous contact with the veneering layer. The microanalysis performed showed the presence of a reaction area at the interface between the different materials. Clinical significance: the increase of the wettability of the zirconia surface could improve the adhesion at interface with the veneering ceramic and reduce the clinical failure as chipping or delamination.
    Dental Materials 08/2014; 42(11). DOI:10.1016/j.jdent.2014.07.019
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    ABSTRACT: Intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS) appears to be related to severe neurogenesis impairment during brain development. The molecular mechanisms underlying this defect are still largely unknown. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the importance of GSK3β signaling for neuronal precursor proliferation/differentiation. In neural precursor cells (NPCs) from Ts65Dn mice and human fetuses with DS, we found reduced GSK3β phosphorylation and, hence, increased GSK3β activity. In cultures of trisomic subventricular-zone-derived adult NPCs (aNPCs) we found that deregulation of GSK3β activity was due to higher levels of the AICD fragment of the trisomic gene APP that directly bound to GSK3β. We restored GSK3β phosphorylation in trisomic aNPCs using either lithium, a well-known GSK3β inhibitor, or using a 5-HT receptor agonist or fluoxetine, which activated the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A. Importantly, this effect was accompanied by restoration of proliferation, cell fate specification and neuronal maturation. In agreement with results obtained in vitro, we found that early treatment with fluoxetine, which was previously shown to rescue neurogenesis and behavior in Ts65Dn mice, restored GSK3β phosphorylation. These results provide a link between GSK3β activity alteration, APP triplication and the defective neuronal production that characterizes the DS brain. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying neurogenesis alterations in DS may help to devise therapeutic strategies, potentially usable in humans. Results suggest that drugs that increase GSK3β phosphorylation, such as lithium or fluoxetine, may represent useful tools for the improvement of neurogenesis in DS.
    Neurobiology of Disease 07/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.03.003
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This literature review summarizes the main aspects involved in the process of adhesion to enamel and dentin and focuses the reader's attention on the evolution of self-etch systems, highlighting their chemical and bond properties and applications in the clinical practice. Materials and methods An online search of keywords on the PubMed database was performed to search for scientific articles (reviews, original articles) published in recent years regarding self-etch adhesives. Results Multiple laboratory and clinical studies described adhesion mechanisms of self-etch adhesives. The majority of these publications found a higher bond quality of self-etch adhesive to dentin, while the bond to enamel remained questionable, especially for single step adhesives. Conclusions The self-etch technique is considered a valid dental adhesion approach from a restorative standpoint.
    Dental Cadmos 06/2014; 82(6):410–417. DOI:10.1016/S0011-8524(14)70189-8
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    ABSTRACT: Neurons in area PEc, a visual area located in the superior parietal lobule, are activated by optic flow stimuli. An important issue is whether PEc neurons are able to integrate multimodal signals, such as those related to optic flow selectivity with those about eye and head position. The aim of this study was to assess if angle of gaze and/or head rotation modify the spatial representation of the focus of expansion (FOE), varying FOE, fixation point and head position in space. We found that the rotation of head modulated the firing activity of PEc optic flow neurons. The head position also changed the angle of gaze effect on the PEc neuronal activity. All recorded neurons showed a main interaction effect between head and eye position upon the selectivity for optic flow stimuli. These results seem to suggest that PEc optic flow neurons use different reference frames depending on the position of the eye and/or the head in space emphasizing a possible contribution of this area in guiding locomotion by integrating multiple extraretinal inputs.
    Neuroscience Letters 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.03.042
  • Psychiatry Research 03/2014; 215(3):799–800. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.06.025
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Histological and clinical criteria are generally used to differentiate second primary tumors (SPTs) from local recurrences. The purpose of the present study was to apply mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop analysis to differentiate SPTs from local recurrences and to validate the clinical classification. METHODS: The study population consisted of 20 consecutive patients presenting multiple oral neoplastic lesions for a total of 25 paired lesions. The mtDNA D-loop analysis was performed by direct sequencing and phylogenetic clusterization. RESULTS: Agreement between mtDNA analysis and clinical classification was found in 19 cases. Discrepancies arose in 6 cases in which the clinical criteria based only on the spatial or temporal distance of the second lesion from the index tumor had led to a diagnosis of SPT (2 cases) or local recurrence (4 cases). CONCLUSION: The present data highlight the value of mtDNA analysis in establishing the clonal relationship between the index tumor and the second neoplastic lesion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.
    Head & Neck 01/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1002/hed.23259
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    ABSTRACT: In the clinical setting, patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are often asked about potential family history (FH) of mood disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine differences between BD patients with FH of a mood disorder, and those without, on clinical, personality and social functioning characteristics, as well as on the symptomatic course of the disorder. Data was collected from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). For this report, we included 2600 patients, 1963 of those reported having a first-degree family member with a mood disorder, and 637 reported of no such FH. We investigated the impact of FH on socio-demographic, clinical, personality and quality of life variables, as well as on symptomatology during the first year of treatment. Patients reporting FH of a mood disorder had an earlier age at onset of depression/mania, more phases, rapid cycling and more suicide attempts. Across different assessments, patients with FH showed consistently elevated depressive symptoms, such as lower concentration and energy, higher suicidal ideation, as well as increased racing thoughts and distractibility within the manic spectrum of symptoms. Further, the FH group had lower quality of life, higher neuroticism and higher personality disorder scores compared to patients without FH. Information on FH was obtained through the proband. Overall, BD patients reporting FH of a mood disorder showed a worse clinical profile upon presentation for treatment and a more symptomatic course of the disorder.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2013; 156. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.013
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aim:Leaving open or closing the oculo-facial defect by means of a myocutaneous flap mainly depends on maxillofacial surgical considerations. For those cases that present a closed defect, the authors aim to evaluate an innovative method of ocular bulb positioning using a magnetic resonance imaging dataset.Technique:Following cancer removal and plastic reconstructive surgery, a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format magnetic resonance imaging dataset was used to determine the volume and position of the left ocular bulb. The exact location of the prosthetic bulb was determined by mirroring this position on the affected side. Images of the eyeglasses were imported into the virtual environment, and the designs of the substructure and facial prosthesis were projected using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology.Discussion:The updated method presented here enables restoration with a facial prosthesis, even when a myocutaneous flap is used to close the defect, thereby resolving the problem of ocular bulb positioning and enabling the rapid and easy design of a retention system connected to eyeglasses.Clinical relevanceThe proposed protocol aims to develop and describe a viable method for the construction of a facial prosthesis for a patient whose face had been reconstructed using a myocutaneous free flap.
    Prosthetics & Orthotics International 12/2013; 38(6). DOI:10.1177/0309364613512368
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    ABSTRACT: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) have been associated with risk of stroke in elderly patients, but the molecular and genetic background under this association has been poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to prioritize a list of genes with an SGA altered expression in order to characterize the genetic background of the SGA-associated stroke risk. Genes with evidence of an altered expression after SGA treatments in genome-wide investigations, both in animals and men, were identified. The Genetic Association Database (GAD) served to verify which of these genes had a proven positive association with an increased stroke risk, and alongwith it each evidence was tested and recorded. Seven hundred and forty five genes had evidence of a change of their expression profile after SGA administration in various studies. Nine out of them have also been significantly related to an increased strokes risk. We identified and described nine genes as potential candidates for future genetic studies aimed at identifying the genetic background of the SGA-related stroke risk. Further, we identify the molecular pathways in which these genes operate in order to provide a molecular framework to understand on which basis SGA may enhance the risk for stroke.
    Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 12/2013; DOI:10.1586/17512433.2014.865515
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    ABSTRACT: Constitutively active phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is a common feature of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), where it upregulates cell proliferation, survival, and drug resistance. These observations lend compelling weight to the application of PI3K inhibitors in the therapy of T-ALL. Here, we have analyzed the therapeutic potential of the pan-PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120 (BKM120), an orally bioavailable 2,6-dimorpholino pyrimidine derivative, which has entered clinical trials for solid tumors, on both T-ALL cell lines and patient samples. BKM120 treatment resulted in G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, being cytotoxic to a panel of T-ALL cell lines and patient T-lymphoblasts, and promoting a dose- and time-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt and S6RP. BKM120 maintained its pro-apoptotic activity against Jurkat cells even when co-coltured with MS-5 stromal cells, which mimic the bone marrow microenvironment. Remarkably, BKM120 synergized with chemotherapeutic agents currently used for treating T-ALL patients. Moreover, in vivo administration of BKM120 to a subcutaneous xenotransplant model of human T-ALL significantly delayed tumor growth, thus prolonging survival time. Taken together, our findings indicate that BKM120, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, may be an efficient treatment for T-ALLs that have aberrant up-regulation of the PI3K signaling pathway.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 6 December 2013. doi:10.1038/leu.2013.369.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 12/2013; DOI:10.1038/leu.2013.369
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