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    ABSTRACT: this study investigated the mechanism of action at the interface between a commercially available Y-TZP and its veneering ceramic after final firing. Particular attention was paid, from a microstructural point of view, to evaluating the effects of different surface treatments carried out on the zirconia.
    Journal of dentistry. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Neurons in area PEc, a visual area located in the superior parietal lobule, are activated by optic flow stimuli. An important issue is whether PEc neurons are able to integrate multimodal signals, such as those related to optic flow selectivity with those about eye and head position. The aim of this study was to assess if angle of gaze and/or head rotation modify the spatial representation of the focus of expansion (FOE), varying FOE, fixation point and head position in space. We found that the rotation of head modulated the firing activity of PEc optic flow neurons. The head position also changed the angle of gaze effect on the PEc neuronal activity. All recorded neurons showed a main interaction effect between head and eye position upon the selectivity for optic flow stimuli. These results seem to suggest that PEc optic flow neurons use different reference frames depending on the position of the eye and/or the head in space emphasizing a possible contribution of this area in guiding locomotion by integrating multiple extraretinal inputs.
    Neuroscience Letters 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This literature review summarizes the main aspects involved in the process of adhesion to enamel and dentin and focuses the reader's attention on the evolution of self-etch systems, highlighting their chemical and bond properties and applications in the clinical practice. Materials and methods An online search of keywords on the PubMed database was performed to search for scientific articles (reviews, original articles) published in recent years regarding self-etch adhesives. Results Multiple laboratory and clinical studies described adhesion mechanisms of self-etch adhesives. The majority of these publications found a higher bond quality of self-etch adhesive to dentin, while the bond to enamel remained questionable, especially for single step adhesives. Conclusions The self-etch technique is considered a valid dental adhesion approach from a restorative standpoint.
    Dental Cadmos 01/2014; 82(6):410–417.
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    ABSTRACT: Intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS) appears to be related to severe neurogenesis impairment during brain development. The molecular mechanisms underlying this defect are still largely unknown. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the importance of GSK3β signaling for neuronal precursor proliferation/differentiation. In neural precursor cells (NPCs) from Ts65Dn mice and human fetuses with DS, we found reduced GSK3β phosphorylation and, hence, increased GSK3β activity. In cultures of trisomic subventricular-zone-derived adult NPCs (aNPCs) we found that deregulation of GSK3β activity was due to higher levels of the AICD fragment of the trisomic gene APP that directly bound to GSK3β. We restored GSK3β phosphorylation in trisomic aNPCs using either lithium, a well-known GSK3β inhibitor, or using a 5-HT receptor agonist or fluoxetine, which activated the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A. Importantly, this effect was accompanied by restoration of proliferation, cell fate specification and neuronal maturation. In agreement with results obtained in vitro, we found that early treatment with fluoxetine, which was previously shown to rescue neurogenesis and behavior in Ts65Dn mice, restored GSK3β phosphorylation. These results provide a link between GSK3β activity alteration, APP triplication and the defective neuronal production that characterizes the DS brain. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying neurogenesis alterations in DS may help to devise therapeutic strategies, potentially usable in humans. Results suggest that drugs that increase GSK3β phosphorylation, such as lithium or fluoxetine, may represent useful tools for the improvement of neurogenesis in DS.
    Neurobiology of Disease 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the clinical setting, patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are often asked about potential family history (FH) of mood disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine differences between BD patients with FH of a mood disorder, and those without, on clinical, personality and social functioning characteristics, as well as on the symptomatic course of the disorder. Data was collected from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). For this report, we included 2600 patients, 1963 of those reported having a first-degree family member with a mood disorder, and 637 reported of no such FH. We investigated the impact of FH on socio-demographic, clinical, personality and quality of life variables, as well as on symptomatology during the first year of treatment. Patients reporting FH of a mood disorder had an earlier age at onset of depression/mania, more phases, rapid cycling and more suicide attempts. Across different assessments, patients with FH showed consistently elevated depressive symptoms, such as lower concentration and energy, higher suicidal ideation, as well as increased racing thoughts and distractibility within the manic spectrum of symptoms. Further, the FH group had lower quality of life, higher neuroticism and higher personality disorder scores compared to patients without FH. Information on FH was obtained through the proband. Overall, BD patients reporting FH of a mood disorder showed a worse clinical profile upon presentation for treatment and a more symptomatic course of the disorder.
    Journal of affective disorders 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aim:Leaving open or closing the oculo-facial defect by means of a myocutaneous flap mainly depends on maxillofacial surgical considerations. For those cases that present a closed defect, the authors aim to evaluate an innovative method of ocular bulb positioning using a magnetic resonance imaging dataset.Technique:Following cancer removal and plastic reconstructive surgery, a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format magnetic resonance imaging dataset was used to determine the volume and position of the left ocular bulb. The exact location of the prosthetic bulb was determined by mirroring this position on the affected side. Images of the eyeglasses were imported into the virtual environment, and the designs of the substructure and facial prosthesis were projected using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology.Discussion:The updated method presented here enables restoration with a facial prosthesis, even when a myocutaneous flap is used to close the defect, thereby resolving the problem of ocular bulb positioning and enabling the rapid and easy design of a retention system connected to eyeglasses.Clinical relevanceThe proposed protocol aims to develop and describe a viable method for the construction of a facial prosthesis for a patient whose face had been reconstructed using a myocutaneous free flap.
    Prosthetics & Orthotics International 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) have been associated with risk of stroke in elderly patients, but the molecular and genetic background under this association has been poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to prioritize a list of genes with an SGA altered expression in order to characterize the genetic background of the SGA-associated stroke risk. Genes with evidence of an altered expression after SGA treatments in genome-wide investigations, both in animals and men, were identified. The Genetic Association Database (GAD) served to verify which of these genes had a proven positive association with an increased stroke risk, and alongwith it each evidence was tested and recorded. Seven hundred and forty five genes had evidence of a change of their expression profile after SGA administration in various studies. Nine out of them have also been significantly related to an increased strokes risk. We identified and described nine genes as potential candidates for future genetic studies aimed at identifying the genetic background of the SGA-related stroke risk. Further, we identify the molecular pathways in which these genes operate in order to provide a molecular framework to understand on which basis SGA may enhance the risk for stroke.
    Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Constitutively active phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is a common feature of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), where it upregulates cell proliferation, survival, and drug resistance. These observations lend compelling weight to the application of PI3K inhibitors in the therapy of T-ALL. Here, we have analyzed the therapeutic potential of the pan-PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120 (BKM120), an orally bioavailable 2,6-dimorpholino pyrimidine derivative, which has entered clinical trials for solid tumors, on both T-ALL cell lines and patient samples. BKM120 treatment resulted in G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, being cytotoxic to a panel of T-ALL cell lines and patient T-lymphoblasts, and promoting a dose- and time-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt and S6RP. BKM120 maintained its pro-apoptotic activity against Jurkat cells even when co-coltured with MS-5 stromal cells, which mimic the bone marrow microenvironment. Remarkably, BKM120 synergized with chemotherapeutic agents currently used for treating T-ALL patients. Moreover, in vivo administration of BKM120 to a subcutaneous xenotransplant model of human T-ALL significantly delayed tumor growth, thus prolonging survival time. Taken together, our findings indicate that BKM120, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, may be an efficient treatment for T-ALLs that have aberrant up-regulation of the PI3K signaling pathway.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 6 December 2013. doi:10.1038/leu.2013.369.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence accumulated over the past 20 years has highlighted the presence of an autonomous nuclear inositol lipid metabolism, and suggests that lipid signalling molecules are important components of signalling pathways operating within the nucleus. Nuclear polyphosphoinositide (PI) signalling relies on the synthesis and metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which can modulate the activity of effector proteins and is a substrate of signalling enzymes. The regulation of the nuclear PI pool is totally independent from the plasma membrane counterpart, suggesting that the nucleus constitutes a functionally distinct compartment of inositol lipids metabolism. Among the nuclear enzymes involved in PI metabolism, inositide specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) has been one of the most extensively studied. Several isoforms of PI-PLCs have been identified in the nucleus, namely PI-PLC-β1, γ1, δ1 and ζ; however, the β1 isozyme is the best characterized. In the present review, we focus on the signal transduction-related metabolism of nuclear PI-PLC and review the most convincing evidence for PI-PLC expression and activity being involved in differentiation and proliferation programmes in several cell systems. Moreover, nuclear PI-PLC is an intermediate effector and interactor for nuclear inositide signalling. The inositide cycle exists and shows a biological role inside the nucleus. It is an autonomous lipid-dependent signalling system, independently regulated with respect to the one at the plasma membrane counterpart, and is involved in cell cycle progression and differentiation.
    FEBS Journal 12/2013; 280(24).
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid signalling molecules are essential components of the processes that allow one extracellular signal to be transferred inside the nucleus, where specific lipid second messengers elicit reactions capable of regulating gene transcription, DNA replication or repair and DNA cleavage, eventually resulting in cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis or many other cell functions. Nuclear inositides are independently regulated, suggesting that the nucleus constitutes a functionally distinct compartment of inositol lipids metabolism. Indeed, nuclear inositol lipids themselves can modulate nuclear processes, such as transcription and pre-mRNA splicing, growth, proliferation, cell cycle regulation and differentiation. Nuclear PI-PLCβ1 is a key molecule for nuclear inositide signalling, where it plays a role in cell cycle progression, proliferation and differentiation. Here we review the targets and possible involvement of nuclear PI-PLCβ1 in human physiology and pathology.
    Advances in biological regulation. 11/2013;
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