[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties of the endogenous oestrogen metabolite, 2-methoxyoestradiol (2-MeOE2), are enhanced in a series of sulphamoylated derivatives of 2-MeOE2. To investigate possible mechanisms of resistance to these compounds, a cell line, A2780.140, eightfold less sensitive to the 3,17-O,O-bis-sulphamoylated derivative, STX140, was derived from the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line by dose escalation. Other cell lines tested did not develop STX140 resistance. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) expression is dramatically increased in A2780.140 cells. The cells are cross-resistant to the most structurally similar bis-sulphamates, and to BCRP substrates, mitoxantrone and doxorubicin; but they remain sensitive to taxol, an MDR1 substrate, and to all other sulphamates tested. Sensitivity can be restored using a BCRP inhibitor, and this pattern of resistance is also seen in a BCRP-expressing MCF-7-derived cell line, MCF-7.MR. In mice bearing wild-type (wt) and BCRP-expressing tumours on either flank, both STX140 and mitoxantrone inhibited the growth of the MCF-7wt xenografts, but only STX140 inhibited growth of the MCF-7.MR tumours. In conclusion, STX140, a promising orally bioavailable anti-cancer agent in pre-clinical development, is highly efficacious in BCRP-expressing xenografts. This is despite an increase in BCRP expression in A2780 cells in vitro after chronic dosing with STX140.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Room temperature iodocyclisation of homoallylamines stereoselectively delivers functionalised 2-(iodomethyl)azetidine derivatives in high yield. Increasing reaction temperature from 20 °C to 50 °C switches the reaction outcome to realise the stereoselective formation of functionalised 3-iodopyrrolidine derivatives. It was shown that these pyrrolidines are formed via thermal isomerisation of the aforementioned azetidines. Primary and secondary amines could be reacted with iodomethyl azetidine derivatives to deliver stable methylamino azetidine derivatives. With subtle changes to the reaction sequences homoallyl amines could be stereoselectively converted to either cis- or trans-substituted 3-amino pyrrolidine derivatives at will. The stereochemical divergent synthesis of cis and trans substituted pyrrolidines supports an ion part, aziridinium, isomerisation pathway for azetidine to pyrrolidine isomerisation. Six azetidine derivatives were probed in a zebrafish embryo developmental assay to detect potential biological effects through the analysis of morphology and motility behaviour phenotypes. The range of effects across the probed molecules demonstrates the suitability of this assay for screening azetidine derivatives. One of the probed molecules, rac-(((cis)-1-benzyl-4-phenylazetidin-2-yl)methyl)piperidine, exhibited particularly interesting effects in the developmental assay presenting with hypopigmentation and reduced circulation amongst others. This shows that the zebrafish embryo provides a fast, sensitive and effective way to screen new compounds and in the future in combination with existing in vivo and in vitro assays it will become an integral part in drug discovery and development.