[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Membranous nephropathy leads to end-stage renal disease in more than 20% of patients. Although immunosuppressive therapy benefits some patients, trial evidence for the subset of patients with declining renal function is not available. We aimed to assess whether immunosuppression preserves renal function in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy with declining renal function. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 37 renal units across the UK. We recruited patients (18-75 years) with biopsy-proven idiopathic membranous nephropathy, a plasma creatinine concentration of less than 300 μmol/L, and at least a 20% decline in excretory renal function measured in the 2 years before study entry, based on at least three measurements over a period of 3 months or longer. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by a random number table to receive supportive treatment only, supportive treatment plus 6 months of alternating cycles of prednisolone and chlorambucil, or supportive treatment plus 12 months of ciclosporin. The primary outcome was a further 20% decline in renal function from baseline, analysed by intention to treat. The trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number 99959692. FINDINGS: We randomly assigned 108 patients, 33 of whom received prednisolone and chlorambucil, 37 ciclosporin, and 38 supportive therapy alone. Two patients (one who received ciclosporin and one who received supportive therapy) were ineligible, so were not included in the intention-to-treat analysis, and 45 patients deviated from protocol before study end, mostly as a result of minor dose adjustments. Follow up was until primary endpoint or for minimum of 3 years if primary endpoint was not reached. Risk of further 20% decline in renal function was significantly lower in the prednisolone and chlorambucil group than in the supportive care group (19 [58%] of 33 patients reached endpoint vs 31 [84%] of 37, hazard ratio [HR] 0·44 [95% CI 0·24-0·78]; p=0·0042); risk did not differ between the ciclosporin (29 [81%] of 36) and supportive treatment only groups (HR 1·17 [0·70-1·95]; p=0·54), but did differ significantly across all three groups (p=0·003). Serious adverse events were frequent in all three groups but were higher in the prednisolone and chlorambucil group than in the supportive care only group (56 events vs 24 events; p=0·048). INTERPRETATION: For the subset of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and deteriorating excretory renal function, 6 months' therapy with prednisolone and chlorambucil is the treatment approach best supported by our evidence. Ciclosporin should be avoided in this subset. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Novartis, Renal Association, Kidney Research UK.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effectiveness of transversus abdominis plane blocks in gynecological surgery by systematic review and meta-analysis. Embase, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) bibliographic databases were searched using a Cochrane Library search strategy modified for gynecological surgery. We included randomized controlled trials comparing transversus abdominis plane block with no block or placebo block. We retrieved 681 citations from which we included five published studies (225 randomized participants) which fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and identified a further six ongoing studies. Quality was assessed across six risk of bias domains: randomization sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, missing outcome data, selective reporting and other biases. Data were meta-analyzed where possible and presented as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Study quality was moderate. Compared with no block or saline placebo, transversus abdominis plane block provided significantly less postoperative pain at rest on a 10cm visual analog scale at 2h (mean difference -2.14cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.57 to -0.71) but not at 24h postoperatively (-0.52cm, 95% CI -1.49 to 0.45). Pain on movement showed similar results. Transversus abdominis plane block resulted in significantly less postoperative requirement for morphine use at 24h (-11.76mg, 95% CI -18.77 to -4.75) but not at 48h (-16.01mg, 95% CI -39.40 to 7.39). Evidence exists for the short-term efficacy (within 24h) of transversus abdominis plane blocks during hysterectomy in terms of reported pain and morphine consumption, which may not be sustained at 48h. Updates to this review should be undertaken periodically, and until further robust evidence is available, anesthetists should not rush to adopt this procedure into routine practice.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 10/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy compared with no intervention in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Literature databases, trial registries, journals, abstract books, and conference proceedings, and reference lists, searched up to the end of January 2012.
Randomised controlled trials comparing physiotherapy with no intervention in patients with Parkinson's disease were eligible. Two authors independently abstracted data from each trial. Standard meta-analysis methods were used to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy compared with no intervention. Tests for heterogeneity were used to assess for differences in treatment effect across different physiotherapy interventions used. Outcome measures were gait, functional mobility and balance, falls, clinician rated impairment and disability measures, patient rated quality of life, adverse events, compliance, and economic analysis outcomes.
39 trials of 1827 participants met the inclusion criteria, of which 29 trials provided data for the meta-analyses. Significant benefit from physiotherapy was reported for nine of 18 outcomes assessed. Outcomes which may be clinically significant were speed (0.04 m/s, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.06, P<0.001), Berg balance scale (3.71 points, 2.30 to 5.11, P<0.001), and scores on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (total score -6.15 points, -8.57 to -3.73, P<0.001; activities of daily living subscore -1.36, -2.41 to -0.30, P=0.01; motor subscore -5.01, -6.30 to -3.72, P<0.001). Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions found no evidence that the treatment effect differed across the interventions for any outcomes assessed, apart from motor subscores on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (in which one trial was found to be the cause of the heterogeneity).
Physiotherapy has short term benefits in Parkinson's disease. A wide range of physiotherapy techniques are currently used to treat Parkinson's disease, with little difference in treatment effects. Large, well designed, randomised controlled trials with improved methodology and reporting are needed to assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of physiotherapy for treating Parkinson's disease in the longer term.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite medical therapies and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), patients develop progressive disability. The role of physiotherapy aims to maximise functional ability and minimise secondary complications through movement rehabilitation within a context of education and support for the whole person. The overall aim is to optimise independence, safety and well-being, thereby enhancing quality of life.
To assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no intervention in patients with PD.
We identified relevant trials by electronic searches of numerous literature databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE) and trial registers, plus handsearching of major journals, abstract books, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved publications. The literature search included trials published up to end of December 2010.
Randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy intervention versus no physiotherapy intervention in patients with PD.
Two review authors independently extracted data from each article. We used standard meta-analysis methods to assess the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention compared with no physiotherapy intervention. Trials were classified into the following intervention comparisons: general physiotherapy, exercise, treadmill training, cueing, dance and martial arts. We used tests for heterogeneity to assess for differences in treatment effect across these different physiotherapy interventions.
We identified 33 trials with 1518 participants. Compared with no-intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of velocity (mean difference 0.05 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02 to 0.07, P = 0.0002), two- or six-minute walk test (16.40 m, CI: 1.90 to 30.90, P = 0.03) and step length (0.03 m, CI: 0 to 0.06, P = 0.04); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.61 s, CI: -1.06 to -0.17, P = 0.006), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, CI: 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008) and Berg Balance Scale (3.36 points, CI: 1.91 to 4.81, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total: -4.46 points, CI -7.16 to -1.75, P = 0.001; activities of daily living: -1.36, CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -4.09, CI: -5.59 to -2.59, P < 0.00001). There was no difference between arms in falls or patient-rated quality of life. Indirect comparisons of the different physiotherapy interventions found no evidence that the treatment effect differed across the physiotherapy interventions for any of the outcomes assessed.
Benefit for physiotherapy was found in most outcomes over the short-term (i.e. < three months), but was only significant for velocity, two- or six-minute walk test, step length, Timed Up & Go, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and clinician-rated UPDRS. Most of the observed differences between the treatments were small. However, for some outcomes (e.g. velocity, Berg Balance Scale and UPDRS), the differences observed were at, or approaching, what are considered minimally clinical important changes.The review illustrates that a wide range of approaches are employed by physiotherapists to treat PD. However, there was no evidence of differences in treatment effect between the different types of physiotherapy interventions being used, though this was based on indirect comparisons. There is a need to develop a consensus menu of 'best-practice' physiotherapy, and to perform large well-designed randomised controlled trials to demonstrate the longer-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 'best practice' physiotherapy in PD.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2012; 7:CD002817.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP), a common cause of disability in women, is a condition best viewed in the biopsychosocial framework. Psychological interventions are frequently considered alongside medical and surgical treatments. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies for the treatment of CPP. Electronic literature searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycInfo and DARE databases from database inception to April 2010. Reference lists of selected articles were searched for further articles. The studies selected were randomized controlled trials of psychological therapies in patients with CPP compared with no treatment, standard gynecological treatment or another form of psychological therapy. Two reviewers independently selected articles without language restrictions and extracted data covering study characteristics, study quality and results. Reduction in pain, measured using visual analog scales or other measurements, was the main outcome measure. Of the 107 citations identified, four studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Compared with no psychological intervention, therapy produced a standardized mean pain score of -3.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) -4.52 to -2.02] and 1.11 (95% CI -0.05 to 2.27) at 3 months and -3.95 (95% CI -5.35 to -2.55) and 0.54 (95% CI -0.78 to 1.86) at 6 months and greater, based on a visual analog scale score of 0-10. The current evidence does not allow us to conclude whether psychological interventions have an effect on self-reported pain scores in women with CPP.
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 11/2011; 91(3):281-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence from clinical trials with monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (TEMPO, ADAGIO and DATATOP) and levodopa (ELLDOPA) suggests that Parkinson's disease patients may benefit from treatment being commenced immediately on diagnosis rather than waiting for functional disability to develop, as is traditional clinical practice.
We performed a narrative literature review and meta-analysis of delayed-start design trials in Parkinson's disease.
There was inconsistency in the results of the two rasagiline delayed-start design trials, with early treatment with a 2 mg dose significantly superior in the TEMPO trial, but the 1 mg dose significantly better in the ADAGIO trial, making interpretation difficult. Further, the benefits of immediate treatment were small in terms of total unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores, with a mean difference of 0.91 units (95% confidence interval 0.01, 1.80; P = 0.05) in a meta-analysis of the TEMPO and ADAGIO delayed-start design trials. Such small differences are unlikely to be of clinical relevance. There is also little information on whether immediate treatment has a beneficial effect on patient quality of life with an acceptable adverse reaction profile, and we have no data on whether immediate treatment is cost-effective.
Based on the evidence available, changing clinical practice to immediate therapy on diagnosis is not warranted and further trials are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levodopa initially provides good symptomatic control of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but motor complications often develop after long-term use. Other classes of antiparkinsonian drugs including dopamine agonists, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, or monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors are then added as adjuvant therapy. It is unclear whether one class of drug is more effective than another. This meta-analysis evaluates the comparative benefits and risks of these agents as adjuvant treatment in Parkinson's disease patients with motor complications.
A systematic review of the literature from 1966 to the end of June 2010 was conducted to identify randomized trials involving a dopamine agonist, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor, or monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor versus placebo, as adjuvant to levodopa therapy.
Forty-five trials involving nearly 9,000 participants were included. The meta-analysis confirms reports from individual trials that compared with placebo, adjuvant therapy significantly reduces patient off-time and levodopa dose, with improved symptom severity scores (e.g., Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale). However, dyskinesia and numerous other side effects are increased with adjuvant therapy. Few randomized comparisons between drugs have been undertaken, but indirect comparisons suggest that dopamine agonist therapy may be more effective than catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor and monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor therapy, which have comparable efficacy. No differences between drugs within each class were observed other than the catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor tolcapone appearing more efficacious than entacapone.
This meta-analysis highlights the need for direct head-to-head randomized trials to assess the impact of adjuvant therapy on patient-rated quality of life and health economic outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interpretation of clinical trials comparing different drug regimens for Parkinson's disease (PD) is complicated by the different dose intensities used: higher doses of levodopa and, possibly, other drugs produce better symptomatic control but more late complications. To address this problem, conversion factors have been calculated for antiparkinsonian drugs that yield a total daily levodopa equivalent dose (LED). LED estimates vary, so we undertook a systematic review of studies reporting LEDs to provide standardized formulae. Electronic database and hand searching of references identified 56 primary reports of LED estimates. Data were extracted and the mean and modal LEDs calculated. This yielded a standardized LED for each drug, providing a useful tool to express dose intensity of different antiparkinsonian drug regimens on a single scale. Using these conversion formulae to report LEDs would improve the consistency of reporting and assist the interpretation of clinical trials comparing different PD medications.
Movement Disorders 11/2010; 25(15):2649-53.
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