[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver contains macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) that are critical for the regulation of hepatic inflammation. Most hepatic macrophages and mDCs are derived from monocytes recruited from the blood through poorly understood interactions with hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs). Human CD16(+) monocytes are thought to contain the precursor populations for tissue macrophages and mDCs. We report that CD16(+) cells localize to areas of active inflammation and fibrosis in chronic inflammatory liver disease and that a unique combination of cell surface receptors promotes the transendothelial migration of CD16(+) monocytes through human HSECs under physiological flow. CX(3)CR1 activation was the dominant pertussis-sensitive mechanism controlling transendothelial migration under flow, and expression of the CX(3)CR1 ligand CX(3)CL1 is increased on hepatic sinusoids in chronic inflammatory liver disease. Exposure of CD16(+) monocytes to immobilized purified CX(3)CL1 triggered beta1-integrin-mediated adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and induced the development of a migratory phenotype. Following transmigration or exposure to soluble CX(3)CL1, CD16(+) monocytes rapidly but transiently lost expression of CX(3)CR1. Adhesion and transmigration across HSECs under flow was also dependent on vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) on the HSECs. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that CD16(+) monocytes are recruited by a combination of adhesive signals involving VAP-1 and CX(3)CR1 mediated integrin-activation. Thus a novel combination of surface molecules, including VAP-1 and CX(3)CL1 promotes the recruitment of CD16(+) monocytes to the liver, allowing them to localize at sites of chronic inflammation and fibrosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B cells are present within chronically inflamed liver tissue and recent evidence implicates them in the progression of liver disease. In addition, a large proportion of hepatic lymphomas are of B-cell origin. The molecular signals that regulate normal and malignant B-cell recruitment into peripheral tissue from blood are poorly understood, leading us to study human B-cell migration through hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in flow-based adhesion assays. In such assays, human blood-derived B cells were captured from shear flow without a previous rolling phase and underwent firm adhesion mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Unlike T cells, which displayed vigorous crawling behavior on the endothelium, B cells remained static before a proportion underwent transendothelial migration mediated by a combination of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion protein-1, common lymphatic endothelial and vascular endothelial receptor-1/stabilin-1, and the chemokine receptors, CXCR3 and CXCR4. B-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary malignant B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and marginal zone B cell lymphoma also underwent integrin-mediated firm adhesion involving ICAM-1 and/or VCAM-1 and demonstrated ICAM-1-dependent shape-change and crawling behavior. Unlike primary lymphocytes, the malignant cells did not undergo transendothelial migration, which could explain why lymphomas are frequently characterized by the intravascular accumulation of malignant cells in the hepatic sinusoids. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that distinct combinations of signals promote B-cell recruitment to the liver, suggesting the possibility of novel targets to modulate liver inflammation in disease. Certain features of lymphocyte homing are maintained in lymphoma recruitment to the liver, suggesting that therapeutic targets for lymphocyte recruitment may also prevent hepatic lymphoma dissemination. (HEPATOLOGY 2012).