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SourceAvailable from: Sungjong Roh[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing so- cial, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, ran- domized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obe- sity’s social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more em- pathy for the story’s main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obe- sity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social deter- minants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117565
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have indicated that non-coding RNAs transcribed from enhancer regions are important regulators of enhancer function and gene expression. In this report, we have characterised the expression of six enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) induced in human monocytic THP1 cells following activation of the innate immune response in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Specifically, we have demonstrated that LPS-induced expression of individual eRNAs is mediated through divergent intracellular signalling pathways that includes NF-κB and the mitogen activated protein kinases, extracellular regulated kinase-1/2 and p38. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.FEBS Letters 12/2014; 589(3). DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2014.12.026
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ABSTRACT: When taking a soccer penalty kick, there are two distinct kicking techniques that can be adopted; a 'power' penalty or a 'placement' penalty. The current study investigated how the type of penalty kick being taken affected the kicker's visual search strategy and where the ball hit the goal (end ball location). Wearing a portable eye tracker, 12 university footballers executed 2 power and placement penalty kicks, indoors, both with and without the presence of a goalkeeper. Video cameras were used to determine initial ball velocity and end ball location. When taking the power penalty, the football was kicked significantly harder and more centrally in the goal compared to the placement penalty. During the power penalty, players fixated on the football for longer and more often at the goalkeeper (and by implication the middle of the goal), whereas in the placement penalty, fixated longer at the goal, specifically the edges. Findings remained consistent irrespective of goalkeeper presence. Findings indicate differences in visual search strategy and end ball location as a function of type of penalty kick. When taking the placement penalty, players fixated and kicked the football to the edges of the goal in an attempt to direct the ball to an area that the goalkeeper would have difficulty reaching and saving. Fixating significantly longer on the football when taking the power compared to placement penalty indicates a greater importance of obtaining visual information from the football. This can be attributed to ensuring accurate foot-to-ball contact and subsequent generation of ball velocity. Aligning gaze and kicking the football centrally in the goal when executing the power compared to placement penalty may have been a strategy to reduce the risk of kicking wide of the goal altogether.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115179. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115179
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