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    ABSTRACT: The degenerate four-wave-mixing method is used to measure the second-order hyperpolarizabilities γ of new soluble tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives. For each material, the study of solutions at various concentrations leads to the choice of an optimum solution: a compromise between ‘low-nonlinearity low-loss’ and ‘high-nonlinearity high-loss’ solutions and thus to the determination of its susceptibility χ. The hyperpolarizabilities are deduced from these measurements; ethylenic TTF derivatives show γ values as large as −7·58 × 10 (MKS), larger than acetylenic TTF derivatives which have γ = −1·12 × 10.
    Journal of Modern Optics 01/2095; 42(10-10):2095-2107. DOI:10.1080/09500349514551821
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    ABSTRACT: Time-variant reliability analysis of RC highway bridges strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer CFRP laminates under four possible competing damage modes (concrete crushing, steel rupture after yielding, CFRP rupture and FRP plate debonding) and three degradation factors is analyzed in terms of reliability index β using FORM. The first degradation factor is chloride-attack corrosion which induces reduction in steel area and concrete cover cracking at characteristic key times (corrosion initiation, severe surface cover cracking). The second degradation factor considered is fatigue which leads to damage in concrete and steel rebar. Interaction between corrosion and fatigue crack growth in steel reinforcing bars is implemented. The third degradation phenomenon is the CFRP properties deterioration due to aging. Considering these three degradation factors, the time-dependent flexural reliability profile of a typical simple 15 m-span intermediate girder of a RC highway bridge is constructed under various traffic volumes and under different corrosion environments. The bridge design options follow AASHTO-LRFD specifications. Results of the study have shown that the reliability is very sensitive to factors governing the corrosion. Concrete damage due to fatigue slightly affects reliability profile of non-strengthened section, while service life after strengthening is strongly related to fatigue damage in concrete.
    Reliability Engineering [?] System Safety 11/2014; 131. DOI:10.1016/j.ress.2014.04.016
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    ABSTRACT: Hay meadows and hedgerows have been declining for decades in Western Europe. Conservation policies promote their protection but agri-environmental measures for both can be implemented in the same area, possibly generating loss of efficiency. We recorded grassland passerine abundance in 99 sampling plots distributed in hay meadow habitat. Sampling plots were located across a gradient of hedgerow density in a floodplain system. As expected, abundance and species richness increased with grassland area. More importantly, hedgerow density was negatively related to both response variables when grassland area was controlled for. This result is important for habitat management. Subsidizing agri-environmental measures for hedgerows and grassland is of interest for biodiversity, but incompatibility between measures may occur at the parcel scale if one landscape component (hedges) splits another component (meadows) down to the suitability threshold for grassland species. To optimize the payoffs of subsidies, it can be effective and efficient to manage agri-environmental schemes at the landscape scale.
    Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 05/2014; 189:21–27. DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2014.03.014


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