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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews essential neurointerventional tools approved in the United States, including catheters and wires, coils, flow diverters, balloons, stents, and devices for mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis. These devices are the result of decades of technical development; this article will also briefly trace the evolution of these devices, with an emphasis on the most influential developments.
    Neurosurgery Clinics of North America. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a recognized source of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). While traumatic brain injury is a recognized risk factor for the development of VTE, its presence complicates the decision to begin anticoagulation due to fear of exacerbating the intracranial hemorrhagic injury. The role of chemoprophylaxis in this setting is poorly defined, leading to a wide variability in clinical practice. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed in an effort to summarize relevant data and construct a chemoprophylaxis protocol to be implemented in a Level I Trauma Center. The review reveals robust evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of chemoprophylaxis in the setting of TBI following demonstration of a stable intracranial injury. In light of this data, a protocol is assembled that, in the absence of predetermined exclusion criteria, will initiate chemoprophylaxis within 24 h after the demonstration of a stable intracranial injury by computed tomography (CT).
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 01/2014; 123:109–116.
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    ABSTRACT: The giants of medicine and anatomy have each left their mark on the history of the cranial nerves, and much of the history of anatomic study can be viewed through the lens of how the cranial nerves were identified and named. A comprehensive literature review on the classification of the cranial names was performed. The identification of the cranial nerves began with Galen in the 2nd century AD and evolved up through the mid-20th century. In 1778, Samuel Sömmerring, a German anatomist, classified the 12 cranial nerves as we recognize them today. This review expands on the excellent investigations of Flamm, Shaw, and Simon et al., with discussion of the historical identification as well as the process of naming the human cranial nerves. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Clinical Anatomy 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between the optic apparatus and the skull base is important during approaches near the sella turcica. One relationship that dictates which approach is taken is whether the optic chiasm is prefixed or postfixed or in a "normal" location, (centered over the diaphragma sella). The relationship between the position of the chiasm and the angulation of the pituitary stalk has not been investigated. Forty adult cadavers without intracranial pathology were dissected and parasagitally hemisected lateral to the sella turcica. The angulations between the pre- and postfixed and normal chiasm and the pituitary stalk were evaluated under magnification. Additionally, 50 MRIs performed among patients evaluating headache were analyzed for these relationships. For cadavers, the chiasm was prefixed in 7.5 % (n = 3), normal in 85 % (n = 34), and postfixed in 7.5 % (n = 3). On imaging, the chiasm was prefixed in 4 % (n = 2), normal in 88 % (n = 44), and postfixed in 8 % (n = 4). For all, the relation between the type of chiasm and the pituitary stalk was more often (p < 0.05) 90° or greater for prefixed chiasmata and acute angles for normal or postfixed chiasmata. These data may assist skull base surgeons when approaching pathology near the optic chiasm and pituitary stalk.
    Acta Neurochirurgica 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Object Tectal plate gliomas are generally low-grade astrocytomas with favorable prognosis, and observation of the lesion and management of hydrocephalus remain the mainstay of treatment. Methods A cohort of patients with tectal plate gliomas at 2 academic institutions was retrospectively reviewed. Results Forty-four patients with a mean age of 10.2 years who harbored tectal plate gliomas were included in the study. The mean clinical and radiological follow-up was 7.6 ± 3.3 years (median 7.9 years, range 1.5-14.7 years) and 6.5 ± 3.1 years (median 6.5 years, range 1.1-14.7 years), respectively. The most frequent intervention was CSF diversion (81.8% of patients) followed by biopsy (11.4%), radiotherapy (4.5%), chemotherapy (4.5%), and resection (2.3%). On MR imaging tectal plate gliomas most commonly showed T1-weighted isointensity (71.4%), T2-weighted hyperintensity (88.1%), and rarely enhanced (19%). The initial mean volume was 1.6 ± 2.2 cm(3) and it increased to 2.0 ± 4.4 cm(3) (p = 0.628) at the last follow-up. Frontal and occipital horn ratio (FOHR) and third ventricular width statistically decreased over time (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusions The authors' results support existing evidence that tectal plate gliomas frequently follow a benign clinical and radiographic course and rarely require any intervention beyond management of associated hydrocephalus.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Alfred W. Adson was a pioneer in the field of neurosurgery. He described operations for a variety of neurosurgical diseases and developed surgical instruments. Under his leadership the Section of Neurological Surgery at the Mayo Clinic was established and he functioned as its first chair. Adson's contributions to the understanding of spinal and spinal cord tumors are less well known. This article reviews related medical records and publications and sets his contributions in the context of the work of other important pioneers in spinal tumor surgery at the time.
    Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 10/2013;
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    Journal of injury & violence research 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations are a rare and diverse group of entities with a complex anatomy, pathophysiology, and serious clinical sequelae. Due to their complexity, there is no uniform treatment paradigm. Furthermore, treatment itself entails the risk of serious complication. Offering the best treatment option is dependent on an understanding of the aberrant anatomy and pathophysiology of these entities, and tailored therapy is recommended. Herein, the authors review the current concepts related to vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations and suggest a new classification system excluding mesodiencephalic plexiform intrinsic arteriovenous malformations from this group of malformations.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The authors explore a combined infratentorial-supracerebellar and telovelar approach in an adult, while avoiding vermian-splitting methods for a large, midline, fourth-ventricular tumor, unapproachable though a single traditional route. Experience with a combined surgical approach for pediatric patients has been published, but the authors believe that describing this combined method in an adult will provide a preliminary experience for further exploration of this approach in other adult patients. The authors present a review of the literature along with the case of a 60-year-old man with slight ataxia who presented with a 1-month history of gait difficulty and memory lapse. His MRI of the brain showed mild hydrocephalus and a large tumor of the fourth ventricle. Surgical removal through a suboccipital craniotomy was attempted, and part of the tumor overlying the tectum and the superior cerebellar velum was removed without difficulty. However, despite inferior retraction of the vermis, which allowed further resection of the tumor from the fourth ventricle, residual tumor in the caudal surgical resection cavity was present. Partial transection of the vermis was considered, but avoided because of potential neurological deficits. Instead, the authors redirected their approach and exposed the residual tumor by transecting the inferior medullary velum and removed additional tumor while avoiding the floor of the fourth ventricle. The infratentorial-supracerebellar and telovelar approach resulted in total gross resection of the tumor. For patients with large midline tumors that arise from the superior vermis or the quadrigeminal plate and fill the upper third of the fourth ventricular space, this combined approach may offer a unique possibility of safe tumor removal. This case demonstrates the benefit of a combined approach for a select group of patients.
    International journal of surgery case reports. 07/2013; 4(10):842-845.
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    ABSTRACT: Object Postresection hydrocephalus is observed in approximately 30% of pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors. However, which patients will develop postresection hydrocephalus is not known. The Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (CPPRH) was developed in an attempt to identify this subset of patients, allowing for the optimization of their care. The authors sought to validate and critically appraise the CPPRH. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 99 consecutive pediatric patients who presented between 2002 and 2010 with posterior fossa tumors and who subsequently underwent resection. The data were then analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses, and a modified CPPRH (mCPPRH) was applied. Results Seventy-six patients were evaluated. Four variables were found to be significant in predicting postresection hydrocephalus: age younger than 2 years, moderate/severe hydrocephalus, preoperative tumor diagnosis, and transependymal edema. The mCPPRH produced observed likelihood ratios of 0.737 (95% CI 0.526-1.032) and 4.688 (95% CI 1.421-15.463) for low- and high-risk groups, respectively. Conclusions The mCPPRH utilizes readily obtainable and reliable preoperative variables that together stratify children with posterior fossa tumors into high- and low-risk categories for the development of postresection hydrocephalus. This new predictive model will aid patient counseling and tailor the intensity of postoperative clinical and radiographic monitoring for hydrocephalus, as well as provide evidence-based guidance for the use of prophylactic CSF diversion.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 06/2013;
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