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    ABSTRACT: Four genotypes of Gossypium hirsutum L; two drought tolerant (NIAB-78, CIM-482) and two susceptible (CIM-446 and FH-1000) were selected to make cross combinations. The parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations of two crosses were studied under drought and normal conditions in the field to find gene action involved in the inheritance of the traits; number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield and ginning out turn. There were significant differences among six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) of two crosses for all the plant traits both under normal and drought conditions. Generation means analysis revealed additive, dominance and epistatic genetic effects operating in the phenotypic manifestation of the plant characters under both the conditions.
    Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10/2012; 11(10). DOI:10.3923/pjn.2012.941.945
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental pollution, development of herbicidal resistance among weeds and health hazards due to non judicious use of herbicides has forced the researchers to make concerted efforts to develop alternate weed control strategies. In that scenario, use of allelopathic plant water extracts with reduced rates of herbicides to control weeds in arable crops has become an attractive option for the researchers. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of allelopathic plant water extracts in combination with reduced doses of atrazine for weed control in maize. Atrazine was applied @ full dose (500 g a.i. ha -1), ½ dose (250 g a.i. ha -1), ⅓ dose (167 g a.i. ha -1) and ¼ dose (125 g a.i. ha -1) alone; reduced doses (½, ⅓ and ¼) of herbicide were applied in combination with 20 L ha -1 of allelopathic plant water extracts of sorghum, brassica, sunflower and mulberry; 20 L ha -1 of allelopathic plant water extracts of sorghum, brassica, sunflower and mulberry was applied alone; while weedy check was also maintained as control. The four levels of atrazine showed 65-81% suppression of weeds density and weeds dry weight over control (weedy check), while allelopathic plant water extracts showed 70-75% suppression of weeds density and dry weight when used in combination with half and 1/3 rd dose of atrazine over control. Nonetheless, 49%, 36% and 31% more grain yield was obtained where full dose (alone) and half and ⅓ dose of atrazine in combination of allelopathic plant water extract were applied, respectively over control. In conclusion, allelopathic plant water extracts can be utilized with reduced doses of herbicide to keep environment healthy and efficient weed control in maize. Formulation of allelopathic water extracts into a handy product would facilitate their use for environment friendly weed management.
    Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 08/2012; 22(2):339-346.
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    ABSTRACT: Water extracts from allelopathic crops possess the potential to control weeds effectively, especially when used in combina-tion with reduced rates of herbicides. Label doses of different herbicides and their seventy percent reduced doses, were combined with 18 l/ha each of allelopathic sorghum and sunflower water extracts (WE). This combination was sprayed 30 days after sowing (DAS) for weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Maximum reduction in total weed density and dry weight over the control, was recorded in a field sprayed with mesosulfuron + idosulfuron (Atlantis 3.6 WG) at 14.4 g active substance (a.s.)/ha. However, sorghum + sunflower WE each at 18 l/ha combined with doses which had been reduced by 70% of mesosulfuron + idosulfuron (Atlantis 12 EC at 36 g a.s./ha), or metribuzin + phenoxaprop (Bullet 38 SC at 57 g a.s./ha) or mesosulfuron + idosulfuron (Atlantis 3.6 WG at 4.32 g a.s./ha), reduced total weed dry weight by more than 90%, over the control. Sorghum and sunflower water extracts each at 18 l/ha combined with metribuzin + phenoxaprop (Bullet 38 SC at 57 g a.s./ha) produced a maximum number of productive tillers, spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, biological yield and grain yield. Moreover, this treatment was the most economical along with having the maximum net benefits. The results suggested that weeds can be controlled in wheat, for a higher yield, when a 70% re-duced herbicide dose is used in combination with allelopathic sorghum and sunflower water extracts.
    03/2012; 52. DOI:10.2478/v10045-012-0045-0
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    ABSTRACT: Study to find out the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Lasani-2008, Auqab-2000) to foliar application of 1 % potassium at different growth stages (tillering, flower initiation and milking) was carried out under water limited environment, at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during 2008-09. The wire house experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. Data regarding various agronomic traits (plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant) of crop were recorded using standard procedures. The data so collected were analyzed statistically by using the Fisher's analysis of variance technique and LSD at 5% probability was used to compare the differences among treatments' means. Drought stress at all three critical growth stages adversely affected plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield of wheat plant. Foliar application of K at all three critical growth stages improved the drought tolerance of plants and improved the growth and yield components, however, grain filling stage was found more responsive.
    Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 01/2012; 22(2):431-437.
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    ABSTRACT: Weeds infestation is one of the major threats to crop growth and yield. The efficacy of various postemergence herbicides was evaluated on the basis of P. minor, A. fatua and E. spinosa population reduction and yield attributes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. Results showed that clodinafop propargyl increased wheat grain per spike, 1000-grain weight, straw yield and grain yield up to 92%, 80%, 107% and 59%, respectively as compared to control, while fenoxaprop-p-ethyl showed the lowest response. Reduction in weed density and dry masses was found parallel to the yield, which was higher for clodinafop propargyl and lowest for fenoxaprop-p-ethyl. The maximum rate of benefit (Rs. 147781/1679 US$) ha-1 and marginal rate of return (47%) was observed against clodinafop propargyl (0.12 kg a.i ha-1) followed by bromoxynil + MCPA and efficacy of clodinafop propargyl support its use in wheat crop for effective weed control and better yield.
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    ABSTRACT: Field studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of allelopathic plant water extracts applied alone or tank-mixed with a reduced herbicide dose on the weeds of wheat. Water extracts of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) + sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) + mulberry (Morus alba L.) were used alone (each at 20 L ha(-1)) or combined with iodo + mesosulfuron (3.6 and 7.2 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1); 25 and 50% of the recommended dose, respectively). The recommended dose of herbicide, a weedy check and a weed-free treatment were included for comparison. Allelopathic water extracts alone suppressed the density of canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz.) and wild oat (Avena fatua L.) by 34-42%, and dry weight by 59-67%. The mixture of allelopathic plant water extracts combined with reduced doses of iodo + mesosulfuron gave weed control equal to the recommended dose of the herbicide. Integration of plant water extracts with reduced herbicide rates provide effective weed control and a wheat yield comparable to using the recommended herbicide dose.
    Natural product research 08/2011; 26(12):1156-60. DOI:10.1080/14786419.2011.562204
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    ABSTRACT: A field study pertaining to bio-economic assessment of maize-mash intercropping system at different planting patterns was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the autumn, 2007. Maize crop was planted in the pattern of 60 cm spaced single rows, 90 cm spaced double row strips, 90 cm spaced single rows and 135 cm spaced double row strips, while mash was intercropped in maize plots on same day. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications randomizing planting pattern in main plots and mash intercropping in sub plots. Sole maize grown in the pattern of 90 cm spaced double row strips produced significantly higher grain yield than rest of the planting patterns under study. As regard maize-mash intercropping system, planting maize in 90 cm spaced double row strips facilitating two rows of mash intercropping proved to be superior with respect to grain yield, land equivalent ratio (LER) and net benefit per unit area.
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    ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and performance of oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on the different substrates. The substrates used in the study were T1 (100% C.W), T2 (50% C.W + 50% Banana leaves), T3 (75% C.W + 25% Banana leaves), T4 (50% C.W + 50% Maize leaves) and T5 (75% C.W + 25% Maize leaves). The numbers of days to complete the mycelium growth and days to reach harvesting stage were decreased in treatments T1 and T5 when compared to others treatments followed by T2. The numbers of matured mushrooms were greater in T1, T2 and T5. Total yield was significantly higher in T1 (125 g), T2 (121 g) and T5 (119.8 g) respectively. The maximum dry weight was produced by T1 (27.2 g) and T2 (25.0 g) respectively over others treatments. The nitrogen contents after harvesting of mushrooms were also affected. These results investigated that 100% cotton waste and 50% cotton waste + 50% Banana leaves are suitable for the cultivation of mushrooms as compared to other growing media.
    Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 06/2011; 10(6). DOI:10.3923/pjn.2011.509.513
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    ABSTRACT: The present study pertaining to the estimation of genetic parameters and characters association in forty maize genotypes was conducted in the glasshouse of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during the crop season in February 2009 at 40% moisture level. The data for various quantitative characters were recorded, statistically analyzed. The path-coefficients were computed to estimate the contribution of individual characters to the fresh shoot length. Investigations regarding path coefficient showed that fresh root length had maximum direct effect on fresh shoot length at 40% moisture level followed by dry root weight, root density, leaf temperature and dry shoot weight. It was concluded that fresh root length, dry root weight, root density, leaf temperature and dry shoot weight are the characters which contribute largely to fresh shoot length of maize seedlings and selection can be made on the basis of these characters.
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    ABSTRACT: Allelopathy is a naturally occurring ecological phenomenon of interference among organisms that may be employed for managing weeds, insect pests and diseases in field crops. In field crops, allelopathy can be used following rotation, using cover crops, mulching and plant extracts for natural pest management. Application of allelopathic plant extracts can effectively control weeds and insect pests. However, mixtures of allelopathic water extracts are more effective than the application of single-plant extract in this regard. Combined application of allelopathic extract and reduced herbicide dose (up to half the standard dose) give as much weed control as the standard herbicide dose in several field crops. Lower doses of herbicides may help to reduce the development of herbicide resistance in weed ecotypes. Allelopathy thus offers an attractive environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides in agricultural pest management. In this review, application of allelopathy for natural pest management, particularly in small-farm intensive agricultural systems, is discussed.
    Pest Management Science 05/2011; 67(5):493-506. DOI:10.1002/ps.2091
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