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    ABSTRACT: The cooperation construct in construction lacks conceptual-definitional clarity. A multi-dimensional model of cooperation is proposed in which the construct is conceptualized as comprising four related yet conceptually distinct behaviors: in-role, extra-role, compliance, and deference behavior. The construct validity of this model is assessed using confirmatory factor analysis and a sample of 140 professional managers in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling is then used to test specific predictions linking the four cooperative behaviors with two extrinsic (incentives and sanctions) and intrinsic (intrinsic job satisfaction and legitimacy) job cognition variables. Findings confirm the convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity of the proposed model. Between them, the two intrinsic job cognition variables predict all four behavior dimensions: intrinsic job satisfaction predicts in-role and extra-role behaviors; and legitimacy predicts compliance and deference behaviors. In contrast, the influence of the extrinsic job cognition variables on cooperative behavior is imprecise and weaker. The research suggests that initiatives aimed at improving the level of cooperation in construction project settings should focus more attention on stimulating the internal motivations (enhancing 'personal causality') of project actors.
    Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 07/2012; 138(7). DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000498
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    ABSTRACT: Project management is widely seen as delivering undertakings on time, on budget, and on scope. This conceptualization fails, however, to address the front end and its management. Addressing the front end moves the discipline to a second, more strategic level. This article proposes a third level of conceptualization: the institutional level, where management is focused on creating the conditions to support and foster projects, both in its parent organization and its external environment. Management here is done for and on the project rather than in or to it. We show that management at this level offers an enlarged research agenda and improvement in performance.
    Project Management Journal 12/2011; 42(6):20 - 32. DOI:10.1002/pmj.20271
  • Managing the Professional Practice: In the Built Environment, 03/2011: pages 103 - 124; , ISBN: 9781444392364
  • Managing the Professional Practice: In the Built Environment, 03/2011: pages 11 - 42; , ISBN: 9781444392364
  • Managing the Professional Practice: In the Built Environment, 03/2011: pages 125 - 142; , ISBN: 9781444392364
  • Managing the Professional Practice: In the Built Environment, 03/2011: pages 273 - 285; , ISBN: 9781444392364
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – Advocacy for the re-integration of highly differentiated, at times fragmented, construction project “teams” and supply chains has increased in this era of network competition, yet industry targets remain elusive. This paper aims to report on findings of research focused on the development and validation of the building-blocks for relationally integrated value networks (RIVANS) that seeks to redress this issue. Design/methodology/approach – Complementary theoretical streams are identified through an extensive literature review, and are used to shape and inform discussions of the key RIVANS themes of value objectives, network management, learning, and maturity. Four moderated focus groups hosted in each of two workshops in Hong Kong, are used to validate these themes. Each workshop typically comprised thematic focus group sessions in between introductory presentations and a plenary consolidation session. Findings – The findings indicate strong support for the comprehensive coverage, appropriateness and practical relevance of the key RIVANS themes. The findings also suggest that public sector clients and procuring agents need empowerment to provide adequate leadership and create the environmental contexts required in RIVANS. Research limitations/implications – The chosen research approach and context may temper the generalisability of the findings reported in this paper. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed RIVANS concepts in other contexts. Practical implications – Implications for the development of basic implementation templates for RIVANS are discussed. Originality/value – This paper responds to a clearly identified need for integrative value-based models of competitiveness in construction.
    Engineering Construction & Architectural Management 01/2011; 18(1). DOI:10.1108/09699981111098711
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    ABSTRACT: The relative merits of the guaranteed maximum price (GMP) mechanism as a contractual incentive in construction have been much contested. This question was investigated using a comparative case study of two building projects in Hong Kong. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, review of project documentation and communications, and passive observation of project meetings. The findings suggest that the GMP mechanism has low incentive intensity from an instrumental rationality perspective and high incentive intensity from a value-expressive perspective. Further analysis of the findings leads to two main conclusions about the potential value of the GMP mechanism to a client: (a) it can provide some flexibility in responding to short-term market changes and other idiosyncratic factors and (b) it can be a useful instrument for project work group integration. Based on current approaches to GMP projects in Hong Kong, the ultimate compensation for the additional risk transfer to the contractor should come from the applied mark up or fee rather than any expectation or possibility of financial reward for net cost savings.
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    ABSTRACT: The paper works towards establishing value for trust in project business, particularly the financial value of trust to project business. Concepts of trust are revisited. Rational explanations of trust are shown wanting, calculations of trust and danger being misrepresentations of how the willingness to trust is formed. The paper argues for the need to establish the interpretative and socially constructed nature of trust, primarily based upon prior experiential and psycho-motive learning in relation to current situational factors. Trust and its relationship to forming expectations and generating confidence are considered. Empirical findings are mobilised to show how trust contributed to value in a financial sense. Value is not an absolute in this context for value is empirically and theoretically shown to relate directly to expectations. Value is defined as an asset and is thus part of social capital for projects and in embedded in firms.
    International Journal of Project Management 02/2010; 28(2-28):117-129. DOI:10.1016/j.ijproman.2009.11.007
  • Construction Supply Chain Management: Concepts and Case Studies, 11/2009: pages 199 - 211; , ISBN: 9781444320916
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