[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The osteogenic and osseointegrative potential of a small molecule was examined to assess its usefulness in regenerative procedures. Purmorphamine was used to stimulate bone growth and repair in an in vitro cell based assay and an in vivo chick embryo CAM-assay with and without the presence of an implant. Purmorphamine adhered to precipitated hydroxyapatite coating, could activate the sonic hedgehog pathway and thereby stimulated osteodifferentiation. Porous calcium phosphate beads were used to deliver this small molecule in vivo and showed that purmorphamine increased the trabecular bone-to-bone area significantly. The assay showed Purmorphamine failed to induce any significant difference in osseointegration on titanium coated PTFE implants. This suggests that, whilst a small molecule can enhance osteogenesis and might be useful in regenerative procedures, it failed to enhance the osseointegration of a Ti coated implant, suggesting that this sort of stimulation might be useful for enhancing bone regeneration where bone loss due to disease exists, but not for enhancing early stability of an implant.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The loss of tooth structure can increase cuspal flexure, thereby reducing the fracture resistance of the tooth, or open the tooth-restoration interface, leading to microleakage.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate tooth strain in teeth with different cavity preparations after loading and unloading.
Ten intact human maxillary premolars were selected and embedded in epoxy resin molds. Constantan strain gauges were used and tested as an intact tooth (group I), occlusal cavity (group O), mesio-occlusal cavity (group MO), and finally mesio-occluso-distal cavity (group MOD). All teeth were subjected to gradual nondestructive occlusal loading and unloading (50 N, 70 N, 90 N, 110 N, 130 N, 50 N, 0 N) in a servohydraulic testing machine. All data were analyzed statistically by performing a repeated measures ANOVA with load and cavity as factors to compare the relevant mean strains, and a Bonferroni post hoc test was performed for multiple comparisons (α=.05).
The repeated measures ANOVA did not provide any evidence of an interaction between load and cavity but indicated a significant difference in the mean strains both between the loads (P<.001) and between the cavity groups (P<.001).
MOD cavities presented statistically significantly higher values of strain than MO, O, or intact teeth, and a significant increase in the values of mean strain for all cavities was observed, even with intact teeth, when nondestructive occlusal loading was increased.