[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cities are key sites where climate change is being addressed. Previous research has largely overlooked the multiplicity of climate change responses emerging outside formal contexts of decision-making and led by actors other than municipal governments. Moreover, existing research has largely focused on case studies of climate change mitigation in developed economies. The objective of this paper is to uncover the heterogeneous mix of actors, settings, governance arrangements and technologies involved in the governance of climate change in cities in different parts of the world. The paper focuses on urban climate change governance as a process of experimentation. Climate change experiments are presented here as interventions to try out new ideas and methods in the context of future uncertainties. They serve to understand how interventions work in practice, in new contexts where they are thought of as innovative. To study experimentation, the paper presents evidence from the analysis of a database of 627 urban climate change experiments in a sample of 100 global cities. The analysis suggests that, since 2005, experimentation is a feature of urban responses to climate change across different world regions and multiple sectors. Although experimentation does not appear to be related to particular kinds of urban economic and social conditions, some of its core features are visible. For example, experimentation tends to focus on energy. Also, both social and technical forms of experimentation are visible, but technical experimentation is more common in urban infrastructure systems. While municipal governments have a critical role in climate change experimentation, they often act alongside other actors and in a variety of forms of partnership. These findings point at experimentation as a key tool to open up new political spaces for governing climate change in the city.
Global Environmental Change 02/2013; 23(1):92-102.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, HIV and AIDS have been framed as a "global problem". In the process, transnational advocacy networks have emerged as important actors, and particular places are recognised as key nodes in global HIV and AIDS governance. Using the example of London, UK, this paper examines how these networks are involved in local articulations of global governance and reveals that 'global' processes are inflected by the locations through which networks are routed. The example suggests the need for further analysis of the geographies through which HIV and AIDS is reconfiguring power relations at a variety of spatial scales.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tsunami intervention has been an extraordinary and unprecedented relief and recovery operation. This article underlines the complexities posed by shelter and housing intervention in post-tsunami Sri Lanka, revealing a pragmatic, reductionist approach to shelter and housing reconstruction in a contested and fragmented environment. Competition, housing anxiety and buffer zone implementation have resulted in compulsory villagisation inland, stirring feelings of discrimination and tension, and becoming major obstacles to equitable rebuilding of houses and livelihoods. A new tsunami geography has been imposed on an already vulnerable conflict-based geography, in which shelter has been conceived as a mono-dimensional artefact. An analysis of the process and outcomes of temporary and permanent post-tsunami housing programmes yields information about the extent to which shelter policies and programmes serve not only physical needs but 'higher order' objectives for a comprehensive and sustainable recovery plan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Book reviewed in this article:The Work of Strangers: A Survey of International Labour Migration. By Peter StalkerMigration and Development: New Partnerships for Co-operation. By OECDAid in Place of Migration? (Selected contributions to an ILO-UNHCR meeting). Edited by W.R. Böhning and M-L. Schloeter-ParedesPopulation Migration and the Changing World Order. Edited by W.T.S. Gould and A.M. Findlay
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic flooding in the Chalco valley, state of Mexico, Mexico, is the outcome of past and present socio-environmental changes which have taken place in Mexico City's south-eastern peri-urban interface. This flooding is the result of a complex interaction between urbanisation in an ex-lacustrine area, permanent ecological deterioration and ground subsidence, poor sanitation and inadequate policy responses. Far from solving the flooding problem, short-term policy responses have created increasingly unsafe conditions for current residents. A socio-historical analysis of disasters reveals the importance of taking into consideration particular social actors and institutions in hazard generation and flood vulnerability over time. This paper analyses three aspects of this flooding: first, the importance of approaching floods from a socio-historical perspective; second, the relation between urbanisation, former policies and flood risk generation; and third, current policy responses to and the failure in the risk management of La Compañía Canal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper enters the debate about ‘sustainable development’ with reference to the emerging ‘megacities’, of which the capital of Indonesia, Jakarta, and its adjacent cities in the region known as ‘Jabotabek’ is one. It is argued that, while the immediate agenda of urban environmental management—of water, sanitation and waste—remains important, the problems involved are tractable, and it is necessary to go beyond them to try to think through the implications of regional and global processes in considering the future of city regions such as Jabotabek. The extreme inequality of income distribution in the city region, and associated patterns of power, emerge as major problems in envisaging sustainable futures.
Journal of International Development 11/2006; 5(6):605 - 622.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Review article on:Made by Hong Kong. Edited by Suzanne Berger and Richard K. LesterThe Hong Kong Advantage. By Michael T. enright, Edit E. Scott and David Dodwell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date Favela Bairro is the largest-scale squatter settlement upgrading programme implemented in Latin America. It aims to comprehensively upgrade all the medium-sized squatter settlements in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro by 2004, and the programme is currently being promoted by the city's municipal government as an example of a new approach to tackling poverty and social exclusion in the city. Based on research carried out by the authors, the article examines the central characteristics of Favela Bairro. (During the field research, undertaken in 2000, a total of 39 people were interviewed in Rio, including staff of a range of municipal departments and agencies, community groups and residents, architects, academics, construction company workers, and NGO workers). The examination is conducted in the light of seven policy characteristics which the authors have identified, using policy/project documents and agency agendas, as typifying an emerging new generation of housing policies whose objective is to reduce urban poverty. Through this examination the article aims to add to the growing literature on Favela Bairro, which to date, has been largely descriptive. It also aims to test the proposed framework of analysis, using it as a means to reflect upon the latest generation of housing-poverty policies. The article concludes by arguing that processes of participation and democratisation are central if the latest generation of poverty reduction initiatives is to have an impact which is both substantive in scale and lasting in impact. Yet, as demonstrated in the case of Favela Bairro, it remains extremely problematic for governments to implement projects which devolve significant decision-making powers to poor urban communities, and even more difficult still for governments to institutionalise mechanisms for civil society participation, thereby embracing processes of state reform and democratisation.
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