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    ABSTRACT: The total internal partition function of ammonia (14NH3) and phosphine (31PH3) is calculated as a function of temperature by explicit summation of 153 million (for PH3) and 7.5 million (for NH3) theoretical rotation-vibrational energy levels. High accuracy estimates are obtained for the specific heat capacity, Cp, the Gibbs enthalpy function, gef, the Helmholtz function, hcf, and the entropy, S, of gas phase molecules as a function of temperature. In order to reduce the computational costs associated with the high rotational excitations, only the A-symmetry energy levels are used above a certain threshold of the total angular momentum number J. With this approach levels are summed up to dissociation energy for values of Jmax=45 and 100 for ammonia (Emax=41 051 cm−1) and phosphine (Emax=28 839.7 cm−1), respectively. Estimates of the partition function are converged for all temperatures considered for phosphine and below 3000 K for ammonia. All other thermodynamic properties are converged to at least 2000 K for ammonia and fully converged for phosphine.
    Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 07/2014; 142. DOI:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.03.012
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport via their affinity for unstructured proteins (polymers) in the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Here, we have modeled the effect of NTRs on polymeric structure in the nanopore confinement of the NPC central conduit. The model explicitly takes into account inter- and intramolecular interactions, as well as the finite size of the NTRs (∼20% of the NPC channel diameter). It reproduces various proposed scenarios for the channel structure, ranging from a central polymer condensate (selective phase) to brushlike polymer arrangements localized at the channel wall (virtual gate, reduction of dimensionality), with the transport receptors lining the polymer surface. In addition, it predicts a new structure in which NTRs become an integral part of the transport barrier by forming a cross-linked network with the unstructured proteins stretching across the pore. The model provides specific and distinctive predictions for the equilibrium spatial distributions of NTRs for these different scenarios that can be experimentally verified by, e.g., superresolution fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, it suggests mechanisms by which globular macromolecules (colloidal particles) can cause polymer-coated nanopores to switch between open and closed configurations, a possible explanation of the biological function of the NPC, and suggests potential technological applications for filtration and single-molecule sensing.
    Biophysical Journal 12/2013; 105(12):2781-9. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2013.11.013
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    ABSTRACT: The properties of quantum systems interacting with their environment, commonly called open quantum systems, can be affected strongly by this interaction. Although this can lead to unwanted consequences, such as causing decoherence in qubits used for quantum computation, it can also be exploited as a probe of the environment. For example, magnetic resonance imaging is based on the dependence of the spin relaxation times of protons in water molecules in a host's tissue. Here we show that the excitation energy of a single spin, which is determined by magnetocrystalline anisotropy and controls its stability and suitability for use in magnetic data-storage devices, can be modified by varying the exchange coupling of the spin to a nearby conductive electrode. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we observe variations up to a factor of two of the spin excitation energies of individual atoms as the strength of the spin's coupling to the surrounding electronic bath changes. These observations, combined with calculations, show that exchange coupling can strongly modify the magnetic anisotropy. This system is thus one of the few open quantum systems in which the energy levels, and not just the excited-state lifetimes, can be renormalized controllably. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, a property normally determined by the local structure around a spin, can be tuned electronically. These effects may play a significant role in the development of spintronic devices in which an individual magnetic atom or molecule is coupled to conducting leads.
    Nature Nanotechnology 12/2013; DOI:10.1038/nnano.2013.264
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    ABSTRACT: We present a variational calculation of the first comprehensive T = 300 K rovibrational line list for thioformaldehyde, H2CS. It covers 41 809 rovibrational levels for states up to Jmax = 30 with vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm(-1) and provides the energies and line intensities for 547 926 transitions from the ground vibrational state to these levels. It is based on our previously reported accurate ab initio potential energy surface and a newly calculated ab initio dipole moment surface. Minor empirical adjustments are made to the ab initio equilibrium geometry to reduce systematic errors in the predicted intra-band rotational energy levels. The rovibrational energy levels and transition intensities are computed variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Transition wavelengths and intensities are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The present calculations correctly reproduce the observed resonance effects, such as intensity borrowing, thus reflecting the high accuracy of the underlying ab initio surfaces. We report a detailed analysis of several vibrational bands, especially those complicated by strong Coriolis coupling, to facilitate future laboratory assignments.
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 11/2013; 139(20):204308. DOI:10.1063/1.4832322
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    ABSTRACT: We show how the interference between spatially separated states of the center of mass (c.m.) of a mesoscopic harmonic oscillator can be evidenced by coupling it to a spin and performing solely spin manipulations and measurements (Ramsey interferometry). We propose to use an optically levitated diamond bead containing a nitrogen-vacancy center spin. The nanoscale size of the bead makes the motional decoherence due to levitation negligible. The form of the spin-motion coupling ensures that the scheme works for thermal states so that moderate feedback cooling suffices. No separate control or observation of the c.m. state is required and thereby one dispenses with cavities, spatially resolved detection, and low-mass-dispersion ensembles. The controllable relative phase in the Ramsey interferometry stems from a gravitational potential difference so that it uniquely evidences coherence between states which involve the whole nanocrystal being in spatially distinct locations.
    Physical Review Letters 11/2013; 111(18):180403. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.180403
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluate the performance of different van der Waals (vdW) corrected density functional theory (DFT) methods in predicting the structure of perfect interfaces between the LiF(001), MgO(001), NiO(001) films on the Ag(001) surface and the resulting work function shift of Ag(001). The results demonstrate that including the van der Waals interaction is important for obtaining accurate interface structures and the metal work function shift. The work function shift results from a subtle interplay of several effects strongly affected by even small changes in the interface geometry. This makes the accuracy of theoretical methods insufficient for predicting the shift values better than within 0.2 eV. Most of the existing van der Waals corrected functionals are not particularly suited for studying metal/insulator interfaces. The lack of accurate experimental data on the interface geometries and surface rumpling of insulators hampers the calibration of existing and novel density functionals.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 10/2013; 15(45). DOI:10.1039/c3cp53590h
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    ABSTRACT: The use of human stem cells (SCs) in tissue engineering holds promise in revolutionising the treatment of numerous diseases. There is a pressing need to comprehend the distribution, movement and role of SCs once implanted onto scaffolds. Nanotechnology has provided a platform to investigate this through the development of inorganic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs can be used to label and track SCs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since this clinically available imaging modality has high spatial resolution. In this review, we highlight recent applications of iron oxide and gadolinium based MNPs in SC labelling and MRI; and offer novel considerations for their future development.
    Nanoscale 10/2013; 5(23). DOI:10.1039/c3nr03861k
  • Nature 09/2013; DOI:10.1038/nature12689
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    ABSTRACT: Sr2IrO4 is a prototype of the class of Mott insulators in the strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) limit described by a Jeff = 1/2 ground state. In Sr2IrO4, the strong SOI is predicted to manifest itself in the locking of the canting of the magnetic moments to the correlated rotation by 11.8(1)° of the oxygen octahedra that characterizes its distorted layered perovskite structure. Using x-ray resonant scattering at the Ir L3 edge we have measured accurately the intensities of Bragg peaks arising from different components of the magnetic structure. From a careful comparison of integrated intensities of peaks due to basal-plane antiferromagnetism, with those due to b-axis ferromagnetism, we deduce a canting of the magnetic moments of 12.2(8)°. We thus confirm that in Sr2IrO4 the magnetic moments rigidly follow the rotation of the oxygen octahedra, indicating that, even in the presence of significant non-cubic structural distortions, it is a close realization of the Jeff = 1/2 state.
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 09/2013; 25(42):422202. DOI:10.1088/0953-8984/25/42/422202
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    ABSTRACT: The residual entropy of spin ice and other frustrated magnets is a property of considerable interest, yet the usual way of determining it, by integrating the heat capacity, is generally ambiguous. Here we note that a straightforward alternative method based on Maxwell's thermodynamic relations can yield the residual entropy on an absolute scale. The method utilizes magnetization measurements only and hence is a useful alternative to calorimetry. We confirm that it works for the spin ice Dy2Ti2O7, which recommends its application to other systems. The analysis described here also gives an insight into the dependence of entropy on magnetic moment, which plays an important role in the theory of magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Finally, we present evidence of a field-induced crossover from correlated spin ice behaviour to ordinary paramagnetic behaviour with increasing applied field, as signalled by a change in the effective Curie constant.
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 09/2013; 25(35):356003. DOI:10.1088/0953-8984/25/35/356003
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