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SourceAvailable from: V. M. Nakariakov[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Long-period quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of solar flares are a class apart from shorter period events. By involving an external resonator, the mechanism they call upon differs from traditional QPP models, but has wider applications. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of spatially resolved QPPs, with periods around 10 minutes, observed in the X-ray spectrum primarily at energies between 3 and 25 keV. Complementary observations obtained in Hα and radio emission in the kHz to GHz frequency range, together with an analysis of the X-ray plasma properties provide a comprehensive picture that is consistent with a dense flaring loop subject to periodic energization and thermalization. The QPPs obtained in Hα and type III radio bursts, with similar periods as the QPPs in soft X-rays, have the longest periods ever reported for those types of data sets. We also report 1–2 GHz radio emission, concurrent with but unrestricted to the QPP time intervals, which is multi-structured at regularly separated narrowband frequencies and modulated with ∼18 minute periods. This radio emission can be attributed to the presence of multiple "quiet" large-scale loops in the background corona. Large scale but shorter inner loops below may act as preferential resonators for the QPPs. The observations support interpretations consistent with both inner and outer loops subject to fast kink magnetohydrodynamic waves. Finally, X-ray imaging indicates the presence of double coronal sources in the flaring sites, which could be the particular signatures of the magnetically linked inner loops. We discuss the preferential conditions and the driving mechanisms causing the repeated flaring.The Astrophysical Journal 03/2016; 719(1):151-165. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/719/1/151
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ABSTRACT: Whether the visual brain uses a parallel or a serial, hierarchical, strategy to process visual signals, the end result appears to be that different attributes of the visual scene are perceived asynchronously-with colour leading form (orientation) by 40 ms and direction of motion by about 80 ms. Whatever the neural root of this asynchrony, it creates a problem that has not been properly addressed, namely how visual attributes that are perceived asynchronously over brief time windows after stimulus onset are bound together in the longer term to give us a unified experience of the visual world, in which all attributes are apparently seen in perfect registration. In this review, I suggest that there is no central neural clock in the (visual) brain that synchronizes the activity of different processing systems. More likely, activity in each of the parallel processing-perceptual systems of the visual brain is reset independently, making of the brain a massively asynchronous organ, just like the new generation of more efficient computers promise to be. Given the asynchronous operations of the brain, it is likely that the results of activities in the different processing-perceptual systems are not bound by physiological interactions between cells in the specialized visual areas, but post-perceptually, outside the visual brain.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 05/2015; 370(1668). DOI:10.1098/rstb.2014.0174
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ABSTRACT: Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper, the famous ‘letter on the protozoa’, gives the first detailed description of protists and bacteria living in a range of environments. The colloquial, diaristic style conceals the workings of a startlingly original experimental mind. Later scientists could not match the resolution and clarity of Leeuwenhoek's microscopes, so his discoveries were doubted or even dismissed over the following centuries, limiting their direct influence on the history of biology; but work in the twentieth century confirmed Leeuwenhoek's discovery of bacterial cells, with a resolution of less than 1 µm. Leeuwenhoek delighted most in the forms, interactions and behaviour of his little ‘animalcules', which inhabited a previously unimagined microcosmos. In these reflections on the scientific reach of Leeuwenhoek's ideas and observations, I equate his questions with the preoccupations of our genomic era: what is the nature of Leeuwenhoek's animalcules, where do they come from, how do they relate to each other? Even with the powerful tools of modern biology, the answers are far from resolved—these questions still challenge our understanding of microbial evolution. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 04/2015; 370(1666). DOI:10.1098/rstb.2014.0344
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