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    ABSTRACT: Occupancy grid map is a popular tool for representing the surrounding environments of mobile robots/intelligent vehicles. Its applications can be dated back to the 1980s, when researchers utilized sonar or LiDAR to illustrate environments by occupancy grids. However, in the literature, research on vision-based occupancy grid mapping is scant. Furthermore, when moving in a real dynamic world, traditional occupancy grid mapping is required not only with the ability to detect occupied areas, but also with the capability to understand dynamic environments. The paper addresses this issue by presenting a stereo-vision-based framework to create a dynamic occupancy grid map, which is applied in an intelligent vehicle driving in an urban scenario. Besides representing the surroundings as occupancy grids, dynamic occupancy grid mapping could provide the motion information of the grids. The proposed framework consists of two components. The first is motion estimation for the moving vehicle itself and independent moving objects. The second is dynamic occupancy grid mapping, which is based on the estimated motion information and the dense disparity map. The main benefit of the proposed framework is the ability of mapping occupied areas and moving objects at the same time. This is very practical in real applications. The proposed method is evaluated using real data acquired by our intelligent vehicle platform "SeTCar" in urban environments.
    Sensors 06/2014; 14(6):10454-10478. DOI:10.3390/s140610454
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    ABSTRACT: Fe/SiC bulk nanocomposites were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) directly from a simple mixture of microsized Fe and SiC. Uniformly dispersed nanosized SiC particles with a mean particle size of 78 nm were obtained and fine homogeneous needle-shaped martensite and partial pearlitic microstructures were observed in different planes of the SLM-fabricated Fe/SiC composites. The Fe/SiC nanocomposite exhibits much higher strength than pure Fe sample, with an ultimate tensile strength of up to 753 ± 49 MPa.
    Scripta Materialia 03/2014; 75:90–93. DOI:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2013.11.031
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a novel adaptive-gain Second Order Sliding Mode (SOSM) observer is proposed for multicell converters by considering it as a class of hybrid systems. The aim is to reduce the number of voltage sensors by estimating the capacitor voltages only from the measurement of load current. The proposed observer is proven to be robust in the presence of perturbations with \emph{unknown} boundary. However, the states of the system are only partially observable in the sense of observability rank condition. Due to its switching behavior, a recent concept of $Z(T_N)$ observability is used to analysis its hybrid observability, since its observability depends upon the switching control signals. Under certain condition of the switching sequences, the voltage across each capacitor becomes observable. Simulation results and comparisons with Luenberger switched observer highlight the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed observer with respect to output measurement noise and system uncertainties (load variations).
    Control Engineering Practice 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.conengprac.2013.10.012


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