Université de Savoie

Chambéry, Savoie, France

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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to lend experimental support to the theoretical influence of force-velocity (F-v) mechanical profile on jumping performance independently from the effect of maximal power output (P max ). 48 high-level athletes (soccer players, sprinters, rugby players) performed maximal squat jumps with additional loads from 0 to 100% of body mass. During each jump, mean force, velocity and power output were obtained using a simple computation method based on flight time, and then used to determine individual linear F-v relationships and P max values. Actual and optimal F-v profiles were computed for each subject to quantify mechanical F-v imbalance. A multiple regression analysis showed, with a high-adjustment quality (r²=0.931, P<0.001, SEE=0.015 m), significant contributions of P max , F-v imbalance and lower limb extension range (h PO ) to explain interindividual differences in jumping performance (P<0.001) with positive regression coefficients for P max and h PO and a negative one for F-v imbalance. This experimentally supports that ballistic performance depends, in addition to P max , on the F-v profile of lower limbs. This adds support to the actual existence of an individual optimal F-v profile that maximizes jumping performance, a F-v imbalance being associated to a lower performance. These results have potential strong applications in the field of strength and conditioning.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal attachment (PA) is defined as the relationship that develops between a woman and her foetus. Three measurements exist for evaluating PA: the Maternal Foetal Attachment Scale (MFAS), the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) and the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI). Of these three, only the PAI has been used in French. The overall objective of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of this second measure of PA: the MAAS. This scale was developed in 1993 by Condon. The MAAS is a 19-item self-report questionnaire which allows for calculating a total attachment score and two subscale scores; one score estimating the quality of the affective attachment experience and the other that estimates the intensity of concern about the foetus. For each item, the future mother provided an appreciation on a 5-point Likert scale (1=absence of feelings for the foetus; 5=very strong feelings for the foetus). The sample was composed of 117 primiparous French females (27.5±4.27years) in the third trimester of pregnancy (32.84±3.77weeks of amenorrhea). The study was carried out over a period of 5months (January-May 2012). Each woman was asked to provide demographic data, a French version of the MAAS, a validated French version of the PAI, and a scale evaluating depressive symptoms (Edinburgh PostNatal Depression Scale, EPDS). The MAAS demonstrated moderately good psychometric properties. Condon's two-factor structure of MAAS was not supported in our sample. Four factors were identified with exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency was satisfactory for the global scale and for the factor 1 but not sufficiently adequate for the other factors. Concurrent validity was indicated by moderate correlations between the global MAAS scores with the total PAI score. A weak but significant inverse correlation was found between the MAAS and the EPDS suggesting good divergent validity. The authors suggest that additional research be conducted on the measurement before confirming the validity of the French version.
    L Encéphale 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using poles on foot-ground interaction during trail running with slopes of varying incline. Ten runners ran on a loop track representative of a trail running field situation with uphill (+9°), level and downhill (-6°) sections at fixed speed (3.2 m.s(-1)). Experimental conditions included running with (WP) and without (NP) the use of poles for each of the three slopes. Several quantitative and temporal foot-ground interaction parameters were calculated from plantar pressure data measured with a portable device. Using poles induced a decrease in plantar pressure intensity even when the running velocity stayed constant. However, the localisation and the magnitude of this decrease depended on the slope situations. During WP level running, regional analysis of the foot highlighted a decrease of the force time integral (FTI) for absolute (FTIabs; -12.6%; P<0.05) and relative values (FTIrel; -14.3%; P<0.05) in the medial forefoot region. FTIabs (-14.2%; P<0.05) and duration of force application (Δt; -13.5%; P<0.05) also decreased in the medial heel region when WP downhill running. These results support a facilitating effect of pole use for propulsion during level running and for the absorption phase during downhill running.
    European journal of sport science. 09/2013; 13(5):468-74.


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Journal of Fluid Mechanics 02/2013; 716:414-444.
Science of The Total Environment. 01/1993;

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