[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the role that the type of subcontracting relationships (collaborative outsourcing versus traditional subco ntracting) can have on a subcontractor's ability to innovate in process and product. In orde r to measure the "full" impact of subcontracting relationships on innovation, we make the distinction between process and product innovations, taking into account their poss ible interaction. The empirical test is based on 93 small subcontracting firms operating in "pure industrial industries" meaning that their turnover is carried out minimum 80% in this field ( Sessi, 2006). Using a bivariate probit model, we give evidence that process and product in novations are not independent choices. Collaborative outsourcing agreements favour both pr ocess and product innovations. In line with the findings of previous studies, the results also show that process and product innovations are reinforced by different inter-organ izational practices and tools as well as distinct absorptive capabilities. This suggests imp ortant implications for subcontractors' competitive position.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most cognitive approaches for understanding and treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rest on the assumption that nearly everyone experiences unwanted intrusive thoughts, images and impulses from time to time. These theories argue that the intrusions themselves are not problematic, unless they are misinterpreted and/or attempts are made to control them in maladaptive and/or unrealistic ways. Early research has shown unwanted intrusions to be present in the overwhelming majority of participants assessed, although this work was limited in that it took place largely in the US, the UK and other ‘westernised’ or ‘developed’ locations. We employed the International Intrusive Thoughts Interview Schedule (IITIS) to assess the nature and prevalence of intrusions in nonclinical populations, and used it to assess (n=777) university students at 15 sites in 13 countries across 6 continents. Results demonstrated that nearly all participants (93.6%) reported experiencing at least one intrusion during the previous three months. Doubting intrusions were the most commonly reported category of intrusive thoughts; whereas, repugnant intrusions (e.g., sexual, blasphemous, etc.) were the least commonly reported by participants. These and other results are discussed in terms of an international perspective on understanding and treating OCD.
Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. 01/2013;