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SourceAvailable from: Julian Rubel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Knowledge about typical change patterns of psychotherapy patients can help to improve treatment guidelines for psychological disorders. Recent studies showed that it is possible to identify several patient subgroups with regard to their early change pattern. However, although focusing on the early phase of treatment, change patterns in later stages have hardly been investigated yet. In this study, Growth Mixture Modelling was used to identify latent change classes in different phases of therapy in a naturalistic sample of 1229 psychotherapy outpatients. Furthermore, this paper inquired into the relation between the change patterns in different phases as well as their predictive power for therapy length and outcome. Results revealed different change patterns for the three investigated phases. While in an early treatment phase, (sessions one-six) five different change patterns could be identified: the number of change classes decreased considerably over time, resulting in three patterns in the second (sessions 7-12) and two in the third phase (sessions 13-18). In each phase, by far, the biggest class showed a pattern of good progress with small/no further improvements. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Most change in patients' progress estimates took place in an early phase of the treatment and levelled out on a relatively high level in later phases of the treatment. Substantial improvements were still present in later phases of the treatment but occurred less frequent than in early stages. Continuous outcome monitoring and feedback systems should integrate progress measures to monitor patients progress especially in the early phase of the treatment and feed the so gained information back to therapists.Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 01/2015; 22(1). DOI:10.1002/cpp.1868
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ABSTRACT: Attitudes are a core construct of social psychology, and research showed that attitudes can be acquired by merely pairing neutral stimuli with other liked or disliked stimuli (i.e., evaluative conditioning, EC). In this research we address the role of different memory processes contributing to EC. Although it is commonly found that memory for the pairings increases EC, we argue that memory performance data obtained in the standard paradigm remain ambiguous. We hypothesize that memory for stimulus pairings may moderate EC by means of an intentional use of conscious recollection as well as through unintended effects of memory. In two experiments we used modified memory tests that distinguish between these different memory processes on an item-level by identifying recollection as the participant’s ability to control memory performance. The analyses of the experiments showed that both intended and unintended influences independently moderate EC. Based on these results we discuss the role of different memory processes in EC, and how memory and learning processes may be related.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 11/2014; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.07.005
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the longitudinal reciprocal relations between academic self-concept, achievement goals (i.e., performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and mastery), and achievement (i.e., self-reported grades) in mathematics. The research aim was twofold. First, we examined the confound hypothesis, which states that performance-approach goals do not feature any incremental validity in predicting achievement over and above students' competence perceptions (i.e., academic self-concept). In addition, we expanded research on the confound hypothesis by also investigating performance-avoidance and mastery goals. Second, we investigated the predictive validity of all three achievement goals for changes in academic self-concept. Seven hundred sixty-nine students (50.78% female) attending the highest track of the German three-tier secondary school system participated in three waves of measurement in Grades 5, 6, and 8. Our findings confirmed the confound hypothesis: Performance-approach goals did not explain achievement over and above academic self-concept. The same findings applied to performance-avoidance and mastery goals. Furthermore, performance-approach goals were positively related to academic self-concept changes, whereas performance-avoidance goals showed a negative relation to academic self-concept changes over time. Mastery goals were not associated to changes in academic self-concept. Academic self-concept and achievement showed positive reciprocal relations. To conclude, our results point to complex relations between achievement goals, academic self-concept, and academic achievement over time.Contemporary Educational Psychology 08/2014; 39:301-313. DOI:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.07.002
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