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    ABSTRACT: Strong platelet activation results in a redistribution of negatively charged phospholipids from the cytosolic to the outer leaflet of the cellular membrane. Annexin V has a high affinity to negatively charged phospholipids and can be used to identify procoagulant platelets. Formaldehyde fixation can cause factitious Annexin V binding. Our aim was to evaluate a method for fixing platelets avoiding additional Annexin V binding. We induced expression of negatively charged phospholipids on the surface of a fraction of platelets by combined activation with convulxin and thrombin in the presence of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and calcium. Aliquots of resting and activated platelets were fixed with a low concentration, calcium-free formaldehyde solution. Both native platelets and fixed platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry immediately and after a 24-h storage at 4°C. We observed that the percentage of Annexin V positive resting platelets ranged from 1.5 to 9.3% for the native samples and from 0.4 to 12.8% for the fixed samples (P = 0.706, paired t-test). The amount of Annexin V positive convulxin/thrombin activated platelets varied from 12.9 to 35.4% without fixation and from 15.3 to 36.3% after formalin fixation (P = 0.450). After a 24-h storage at 4°C, Annexin V positive platelets significantly increased both in the resting and in the convulxin/thrombin activated samples of native platelets (both P < 0.001), while results for formalin fixed platelets did not differ from baseline values (P = 0.318 for resting fixed platelets; P = 0.673 for activated fixed platelets). We conclude that platelet fixation with a low concentration, calcium-free formaldehyde solution does not alter the proportion of Annexin V positive platelets. This method can be used to investigate properties of procoagulant platelets by multicolor flow-cytometric analysis requiring fixation steps. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry
    Cytometry Part A 01/2015; 87A(1). DOI:10.1002/cyto.a.22567
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    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic cells have developed repair mechanisms, which allow them to reseal their membrane in order to prevent the efflux of cytoplasmic constituents and the uncontrolled influx of calcium. After injury, the Ca2+-concentration gradient fulfils a dual function: it provides guidance cues for the repair machinery and directly activates the molecules, which have a repair function. Depending on the nature of injury, the morphology of the cell and the severity of injury, the membrane resealing can be effected by lysosomal exocytosis, microvesicle shedding or a combination of both. Likewise, exocytosis is often followed by the endocytic uptake of lesions. Additionally, since plasmalemmal resealing must be attempted, even after extensive injury in order to prevent cell lysis, the restoration of membrane integrity can be achieved by ceramide-driven invagination of the lipid bilayer, during which the cell is prepared for apoptotic disposal. Plasmalemmal injury can be contained by a surfeit of plasma membrane, which serves as a trap for toxic substances: either passively by an abundance of cellular protrusions, or actively by membrane blebbing.
    Biochimie 12/2014; 107. DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2014.08.008
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To report the long-term results of adjuvant treatment with one cycle of modified bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in patients with clinical stage I (CS I) nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors (NSGCT) at high risk of relapse. Patients and methods: In a single-arm, phase II clinical trial, 40 patients with CS I NSGCT with vascular invasion and/or >50% embryonal cell carcinoma in the orchiectomy specimen received one cycle of adjuvant BEP (20 mg/m(2) bleomycin as a continuous infusion over 24 h, 120 mg/m(2) etoposide and 40 mg/m(2) cisplatin each on days 1-3). Primary end point was the relapse rate. Results: Median follow-up was 186 months. One patient (2.5%) had a pulmonary relapse 13 months after one BEP and died after three additional cycles of BEP chemotherapy. Three patients (7.5%) presented with a contralateral metachronous testicular tumor, and three (7.5%) developed a secondary malignancy. Three patients (7.5%) reported intermittent tinnitus and one had grade 2 peripheral polyneuropathy (2.5%). Conclusions: Adjuvant chemotherapy with one cycle of modified-BEP is a feasible and safe treatment of patients with CS I NSGCT at high risk of relapse. In these patients, it appears to be an alternative to two cycles of BEP and to have a lower relapse rate than retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. If confirmed by other centers, 1 cycle of adjuvant BEP chemotherapy should become a first-line treatment option for this group of patients.
    Annals of Oncology 11/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdu518


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Fluid Phase Equilibria 06/2003; 208(1-2-208):265-290. DOI:10.1016/S0378-3812(03)00041-4
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