[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is fast-growing interest in the study of Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in neurodegenerative diseases. In a previous work, we reviewed all the evidence of altered ToM abilities in patients with neurodegenerative diseases in the literature published until then. In the present paper, we extend that analysis by integrating our conclusions with the most updated evidence that is now available. This new analysis allows for a clarification of some pending questions, such as at which stage ToM deficits begin to appear in dementing disorders, what is the relationship between executive functioning and ToM abilities in patients with Parkinson’s disease, and how can ToM tasks help clinicians to discriminate between different neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, we now provide the first review of all articles on ToM abilities in patients with multiple sclerosis. The data discussed here strongly suggest overall that a neuropsychological assessment of patients with neurodegenerative diseases should routinely include an accurate investigation of ToM abilities. Increasing evidence has shown that different ToM tasks may help clinicians in the diagnostic process and caregivers in understanding the behavioural problems that are often shown by their suffering relatives.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Near (NIR) and medium (MIR) infrared reflectance spectroscopy (IR) predictions of fatty acid (FA) composition, expressed as g/kg of milk or g/100 g of FA, on fresh and thawed milk were compared. Two-hundred-and-fifty bulk cow milks, collected from 70 farms in northwest Italy, were scanned by MIR in liquid form and by NIR in liquid and oven-dried forms. MIR and NIR FA (g/100 g FA) predictions on oven-dried milk were similar for the sum of even chain-saturated FA (ECSFA), odd chain-FA (OCFA), unsaturated FA (UFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 FA, and C18:1cis9 to C16 ratio. The monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-6 to n-3 ratio, polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and n-6 FA were predicted better by NIR on oven-dried milk. The NIR showed worse predictions than MIR for almost all FA, when expressed as g/kg of milk. The NIR predictions on fresh liquid and oven-dried milk were similar, but the reliability decreased for thawed liquid milk. The high performance shown by NIR and MIR allows their use for routine milk FA composition recording.