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    ABSTRACT: Interest in the role of extracellular vesicles in various diseases including cancer has been increasing. Extracellular vesicles include microvesicles, exosomes, apoptotic bodies, and argosomes, and are classified by size, content, synthesis, and function. Currently, the best characterized are exosomes and microvesicles. Exosomes are small vesicles (40-100 nm) involved in intercellular communication regardless of the distance between them. They are found in various biological fluids such as plasma, serum, and breast milk, and are formed from multivesicular bodies through the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Microvesicles are 100-1000 nm vesicles released from the cell by the outward budding of the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles is very broad, with applications including a route of drug delivery and as biomarkers for diagnosis. Extracellular vesicles extracted from stem cells may be used for treatment of many diseases including kidney diseases. This review highlights mechanisms of synthesis and function, and the potential uses of well-characterized extracellular vesicles, mainly exosomes, with a special focus on renal functions and diseases.
    Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 10/2013; 46(10):824-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in the spectrum of clinically important fungal infection have been observed in recent years. Acremonium species has been responsible for eumycotic mycetomas but has also been increasingly implicated in systemic fungal diseases. A case of Acremonium kiliense fungemia with proven involvement of the lungs in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell patient is reported. A high-resolution computed tomography scan of the lungs showed nodules in both lungs. Multiple cultures of blood demonstrated narrow septate hyphae, cylindrical conidia, and solitary tapering phialides and microconidia that remained grouped in slimy heads. The isolate was identified as A. kiliense based on its morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing of the clinical isolate was performed to four antifungal agents. Amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole were found to be inactive in vitro against the isolate; however, it was found to be sensitive to voriconazole. This last drug was indicated, and a high-resolution computed tomography scan of the lungs was normal after 10 days. One year later, the patient was free of symptoms and her blood culture was negative for fungi. Thus, voriconazole was effective in treatment for life-threatening A. kiliense infections. In this work, we performed an overview of worldwide clinical infections caused by A. kiliense.
    Mycopathologia 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A method, based on Raman spectroscopy, for identification of different microorganisms involved in bacterial urinary tract infections has been proposed. Spectra were collected from different bacterial colonies (Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae, and Gram-positive: Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.), grown on culture medium (agar), using a Raman spectrometer with a fiber Raman probe (830 nm). Colonies were scraped from the agar surface and placed on an aluminum foil for Raman measurements. After preprocessing, spectra were submitted to a principal component analysis and Mahalanobis distance (PCA/MD) discrimination algorithm. We found that the mean Raman spectra of different bacterial species show similar bands, and S. aureus was well characterized by strong bands related to carotenoids. PCA/MD could discriminate Gram-positive bacteria with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and Gram-negative bacteria with sensitivity ranging from 58 to 88% and specificity ranging from 87% to 99%.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 10/2012; 17(10):107004.

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