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    ABSTRACT: Dental disease is now recognised as a major but often unrecognised disorder of equids, including horses and donkeys. However, very few large clinical studies have documented the prevalence and type of dental disease present in different equid populations and no dental studies have been reported in Zamorano-Leonés or Mirandês donkeys, two endangered donkey breeds. Clinical and detailed oral examinations were performed in 400 Mirandês and 400 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys in Portugal and Spain. It was found that just 4.5 per cent had ever received any previous dental care. Cheek teeth (CT) disorders were present in 82.8 per cent of these donkeys, ranging from a prevalence of 29.6 per cent in the <2.5-year-old group to 100 per cent in the >25-year-old group. These CT disorders included enamel overgrowths (73.1 per cent prevalence but with just 6.3 per cent having associated soft tissue injuries), focal overgrowths (37.3 per cent), periodontal disease (23.5 per cent) and diastemata (19.9 per cent). Peripheral caries was present in 5.9 per cent of cases, but inexplicably, infundibular caries was very rare (1.3 per cent prevalence); this may have been due to their almost fully foraged diet. The high prevalence of enamel overgrowths in these donkeys, most which never received concentrates, also raises questions about the aetiology of this disorder. This very high prevalence of CT disorders, especially in older donkeys, was of great welfare concern in some cases and emphasises the need for routine dental care in these cases on welfare grounds and in order to help preserve these unique breeds.
    The Veterinary record. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by parasites of Leishmania donovani complex is a severe human disease which often leads to death if left untreated. Domestic dogs are the main reservoir hosts for zoonotic human visceral infection caused by L. infantum. In the absence of effective human/dog vaccines, the only feasible way to treat and control leishmaniasis is through the use of suitable medications. To know the drug susceptibility of human and canine Leishmania strains from Lisbon-Portugal, a study on a panel of strains was conducted by testing the susceptibility of promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes to the common drugs used in canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and human VL (meglumine antimoniate, amphotericin B, miltefosine and allopurinol). Although a high heterogeneity of susceptibilities was obtained to each drug on both axenic promastigote and intracellular amastigote assays, intracellular amastigotes system correlated better with treatment outcome. Parasites isolated from the refractory human case were the least susceptible to the drugs used highlighting that the emergence of cross-resistance to the drugs available for human therapy should not be neglected. Furthermore, parasites isolated from dogs showed low susceptibility to the main drugs used in CanL treatment. Our results focus the importance of reducing/avoiding the emergence and spread of resistant parasites in the canine and human populations, a factor that requires special consideration when dogs are treated using the same available anti-Leishmania drugs for human VL. In addition, efforts should be made in order to standardize the conditions used to test drug susceptibility (methodologies, drug formulations and media) in order to compare results between laboratories.
    Experimental Parasitology 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Tooth resorption (TR) is one of the most common dental diseases in cats. Determination of risk factors has not yet been fully assessed and, to the best knowledge of the authors, this disease has never been studied in Portuguese cats. The objective of this case-control study was to determine type and distribution of TR lesions, evaluate risk factors, and establish relationships between variables in this disease. The study included data from 71 cats admitted for general anesthesia for various reasons. The cats were randomly selected. The inclusion criteria were availability of clinical history and owner permission. Cats with known oral disease were not excluded from the study. All cats received ultrasonic scaling and polishing of the teeth, a thorough oral examination, and full-mouth radiographs. A strong statistical relation was found between age and TR. The age group of 10 to 15-years showed an increased risk of 6.56 times for TR occurrence compared with the group 0 to 4-years of age. Presence of gingivitis in all index levels was related to an increased risk for TR. No relation was found between age or gingivitis index and lesion type. Mandibular third premolar and molar teeth were most commonly affected by TR, especially for type 1 lesions. Canine teeth were statistically more likely to have type 2 lesions. The trend for the canine teeth to be more affected with type 2 lesions needs further verification.
    Journal of veterinary dentistry 01/2013; 30(2):78-83.

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