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ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW) were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.02/2015; 44(2):52-59. DOI:10.1590/S1806-92902015000200003
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ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that quercetin (Quer), a polyphenol widely found in vegetables, decreased glioma cell growth in vitro. Here, we asked whether this compound could affect glioma growth in an in vivo rat glioma model. We found that daily intraperitoneal Quer (50 mg/kg) injections lead to a concentration of 0.15 μg of Quer per gram of brain tissue, which increased the tumor volume in a time dependent manner. We observed a small reduction in lymphocytic infiltration, a marker of good prognosis in gliomas that was accompanied by a small reduction in cell viability of peripheral T-cells. Moreover, after Quer treatment neither body weight alteration nor liver pathology markers were detected. Although in vitro studies and massive literature reports point to the antitumoral properties of Quer, the present results indicate that great caution has to be taken in the design of clinical trials and the indiscriminate use of this polyphenol as dietary supplement.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2013; 63. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.11.002
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ABSTRACT: Persea cordata Mez. (Lauraceae) is a medicinal plant used in veterinary ethnopharmacology, which is a popular medicine used as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent, mainly on animal skin diseases, characterized by cutaneous open wounds, in South Brazil. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible antiedematogenic effect of ethyl acetate (EtAc) and butanol (BuOH) polar fractions of P. cordata on Evans blue dye leakage induced by pro-inflammatory agents in rat skin. Male Wistar rats (180-200g, n=5-6) were pretreated with a single intraperitoneal administration of EtAc or BuOH (1 to 600mgkg(-1)) fractions followed by intravenous Evans blue dye injection (1%, 30mgkg(-1), i.v.), 60minutes before the injection of phlogistic agents. Animals received intradermal injections (0.05ml) of carrageenan (CAR, 300µg/site), 48/80 compound (C4880, 10µg/site), histamine (HIS, 0.3µg/site), serotonin (5-HT, 0.01µg/site), dextran (DEX, 200µg/site), bradykinin (BK, 0.003µg/site), capsaicin (CPS, 400µg/site), substance P (SP, 0.003µg/site) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 10nmol/site) and they were submitted to euthanasia after 60min. Skin samples were obtained in the extravasation sites of Evans blue dye. Skin fragments were soaked in formamide at 37°C (during 24h) for Evans blue extraction. The amount of dye leakage in the tissue fragment was determined by a spectrophotometer (620nm). In a very similar manner in terms of potency and efficacy, systemic administration of EtAc and BuOH fractions caused dose-dependent inhibition of vascular Evans blue dye leakage induced by phlogistic agents in the rat skin. The results obtained (ID50 values in mg.kg(-1) and maximal inhibition in %) with EtAc fraction, as follows were: CAR (34.42 and 63.0), 4880 (8.52 and 59.1), HIS (21.22 and 66.8), 5-HT (32.99 and 73.4), DEX (41.74 and 67.0), BK (34.03 and 68.0), CPS (100.7 and 77), SP (2.1 and 78.9) and PGE2 (133 and 71.0). BuOH fraction significantly inhibited CAR (25.9 and 70)-, 4880 (36.8 and 66)-, HIS (17.6 and 77)-, 5-HT (32.8 and 56)-, DEX (89.6 and 75)-, BK (28.0 and 66)-, CPS (136.37 and 71)-, SP (5.6 and 78)- and PGE2 (109.64 and 56)-induced VE, respectively. Systemic administration of P. cordata polar fractions exerts a non-specific inhibitory effect on microvascular leakage induced by pro-inflammatory agents in rat skin, probably to interfering with different biological systems involved in the development of the inflammatory process, reinforcing the popular use of P. cordata as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent for skin.Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2013; 150(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.035
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