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ABSTRACT: Weight control by dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been shown to prevent cancer in various models. However, the mechanisms as to how weight control is beneficial are not well understood. While previous reports have investigated the effects of weight control on total lipid levels or lipid composition within cellular membranes, there has been little work surrounding changes to individual lipids following weight control interventions. In this study, using a model of skin carcinogenesis centered on the tumor promotion stage, CD-1 mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ad libitum and sedentary (control), ad libitum with exercise (AL+Exe), exercise with pair feeding of a diet isocaloric with control (PF+Exe), and sedentary with 20% DCR compared to control. After ten weeks, body weight and body fat percentages significantly decreased in the PF+Exe and DCR groups but not AL+Exe when compared with sedentary controls. Murine skin and plasma samples were obtained for analysis. Lipidomics using electrospray ionization MS/MS was employed to profile triacylglycerol (TG) and diacylglycerol (DG) species. Both plasma and tissue TG species containing fatty acid chains with length 18:1 were significantly decreased following DCR when compared to sedentary control animals. In regards to DG, the most significant changes occurred in the plasma. DG species containing fatty acids with lengths 16:1 or 18:1 were significantly decreased in PF+Exe and DCR groups when compared to sedentary controls. Due to the significant role of TG in energy storage and DG in cellular signaling, our findings of the effects of weight control on individual TG and DG species in plasma and skin tissue following exposure to a tumor promoter, may provide insight into the mechanism of weight control on cancer prevention.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0116398. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116398
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ABSTRACT: Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT) improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W′) and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC)-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4x4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4x4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18) or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30) in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30). Pre and post training, critical power (CP), W′, cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W′ (−14.3%, P = 0.013), maximal voluntary torque (−8.6%, P = 0.001), rate of force development (−10.5%, P = 0.018), maximal jumping power (−6.3%, P = 0.007) and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (−6.4%, P = 0.044) were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes) may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116764
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