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ABSTRACT: Comorbidity of major depression with substance abuse increases the risk of committing suicide. The objective of this work was to determine the psychological and socio-demographic factors associated with depression and suicide attempts in patients rehabilitating for drug consumption.
Journal of affective disorders. 07/2014; 169C:10-14.
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ABSTRACT: Extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) caused by antipsychotic therapy are currently treated with anticholinergics that lack selectivity for the five muscarinic receptor subtypes. Since these receptors are heterogeneously expressed among the different classes of striatal neurons and their afferents, it can be expected that their simultaneous blockade will cause distinct, sometimes opposed, effects within the striatal circuitry. In order to test the hypothesis that the differential blockade of the muscarinic receptor subtypes would influence their potency and efficacy to prevent EPS, here we tested four anticholinergics with varying order of affinities for the muscarinic receptor subtypes, and compared their dose-response curves to inhibit haloperidol-induced catalepsy in male rats. Drugs were applied into the lateral ventricle 15 min before haloperidol (2 mg/kg, s.c.). Catalepsy was measured in the bar test at 15 min intervals during 5 h. The preferential M1/M4 antagonist pirenzepine (3, 10, 30, 100, and 300 nmol) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of catalepsy intensity: ED50 = 5.6 nmol [95% CI, 3.9 to 8.1], and latency: ED50 = 5.6 nmol [95% CI, 3.7 to 8.6]. Pirenzepine had the steepest dose-response curve, producing maximal inhibition (84 ± 5 %) at the dose of 10 nmol, while its effect tended to reverse at higher doses (62 ± 11 %). The purported M1/M3 antagonist 4-DAMP (30, 100, and 300 nmol) also caused a dose-dependent inhibition of catalepsy intensity: ED50 = 29.5 nmol [95% CI, 7.0 to 123.0], and latency: ED50 = 28.5 nmol [95% CI, 2.2 to 362.0]. However, the curve for 4-DAMP had a less pronounced slope, reaching its maximal effect (63 ± 14 %) at the dose of 300 nmol. The M2/M4 antagonist AF-DX 116 (10, 30, and 300 nmol) only caused a partial inhibition of catalepsy (30 ± 11 %) at the dose of 30 nmol, but this changed to a non-significant increment (15 ± 10 %) at the dose of 100 nmol. The alleged M4 antagonist tropicamide (30, 100, 300, and 600 nmol) produced a partial inhibition of catalepsy (36 ± 12 %) at the dose of 300 nmol, but lacked effect at higher or lower doses. Concurrent treatment with pirenzepine (10 nmol) and tropicamide (300 nmol) produced an effect similar to that of tropicamide alone. The greater potency and efficacy of pirenzepine for catalepsy inhibition could be due to its higher affinity for M1 receptors and, to a lesser extent, for M4 receptors. It is suggested that selective M1 antagonists would be more effective than M2, M3 or M4 antagonists to prevent EPS caused by antipsychotic drugs.
Journal of Supercritical Fluids The 01/2014;
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