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ABSTRACT: Alterations in DNA methylation have implicated as an epigenetic event in the pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). The objective of this work was to evaluate global DNA methylation levels for long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) repetitive sequences in Colombian patients with LOAD and controls. The LINE-1 DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood samples from 28 Colombian patients with LOAD and 30 healthy participants were assessed using a methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) quantitative assay. We did not find differences in LINE-1 methylation levels between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; median 76.2%, interquartile range [IQR]: 69.8-81.9) and control participants (median 79.8%, IQR: 73.2-83.8; P = .3). Additional stratified analyses did not show differences in LINE-1 methylation levels for male or female patients versus controls nor for apolipoprotein E4 carriers and noncarriers. This is the first report of LINE-1 methylation levels in patients with LOAD using the cost-effective MS-HRM technique, and this is the first global DNA methylation study in Latin American patients with AD.American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias 10/2013; 29(1). DOI:10.1177/1533317513505132
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ABSTRACT: The Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi induces a robust cardiac inflammation that plays a pathogenic role in the development of Chagas heart disease. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effects of Heme Oxygenase (HO) during experimental infection by T. cruzi in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. HO has recently emerged as a key factor modulating the immune response in diverse models of inflammatory diseases. In mice with two different genetic backgrounds, the pharmacologic inhibition of HO activity with zinc-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) induced enhanced myocarditis and reduced parasitaemia, which was accompanied by an amplified production of nitric oxide and increased influx of CD4(+), CD8(+) and IFN-γ(+) cells to the myocardium in comparison with the control group. Conversely, treatment with haemin (an activator of HO) lead to a decreased number of intracardiac CD4(+) (but not CD8(+)) cells compared to the control group. The mechanism involved in these observations is a modulation of the induction of regulatory T cells, because the stimulation or inhibition of HO was paralleled by an enhanced or reduced frequency of regulatory T cells, respectively. Hence, HO may be involved in the regulation of heart tissue inflammation and could be a potential target in conceiving future therapeutic approaches for Chagas disease.Microbes and Infection 10/2013; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2013.10.007
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ABSTRACT: Statins are pharmacological inhibitors of the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cholesterol. Some recent experimental studies have shown that besides their effects on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, statins may also have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects through diverse mechanisms. On the other hand, the induction and activity of regulatory T cells (Treg) are key processes in the prevention of pathology during chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Hence, strategies oriented towards the therapeutic expansion of Tregs are gaining special attention among biomedical researchers. The potential effects of statins on the biology of Treg are of particular importance because of their eventual application as in vivo inducers of Treg in the treatment of multiple conditions. In this paper we review the experimental evidence pointing out to a potential effect of statins on the role of regulatory T cells in different conditions and discuss its potential clinical significance.Mediators of Inflammation 10/2013; 2013:167086. DOI:10.1155/2013/167086
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