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ABSTRACT: Winterization is a method to modify the characteristics of oils and fats to provide added value by concentrating the unsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study is to characterize a residue from pork processing and evaluate two different fractionation methods via winterization. Furthermore, the fatty-acid composition and the chemical characterization were determined from the grease waste and the fractions obtained after fractionation. The untreated grease waste showed an acidity index of 0.57 mg KOH/g, a peroxide value of 10.74 mEq/kg, 56.45% unsaturated fatty acids and 43.55% saturated fatty acids, with the predominance of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The experiment, which was performed in two cooling stages and stirred at 600 rpm, showed a decrease of 27.89% in the saturated fatty-acid content, which predominantly consisted of oleic, palmitic and stearic fatty acids. The winterization process improved the quality of the grease waste, reduced the peroxide value and concentrated the unsaturated fatty acids.09/2015; 5. DOI:10.1016/j.susmat.2015.09.001
- UFGD - Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, 01/2015, Degree: PhD
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ABSTRACT: In this study, crude oil was extracted by heating and filtering of the residual fat obtained from the processing of mechanically separated meats of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and hybrid sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans × P. fasciatum) for protein concentrate obtaining. The crude oil was refined by the following steps: degumming with 85% phosphoric acid, neutralization with 20% NaOH, washing with hot water at 85 °C, drying at 90 °C, clarification with activated charcoal and filtration with diatomaceous earth and anhydrous sodium sulfate. The quality of crude and refined oils was verified by acidity, peroxide, iodine, refractive, and saponification indexes, beyond moisture, lipid and free fatty acids contents, and density. The results show that the refining reduced the acidity index of the crude oil, however, favored the oil oxidation, as demonstrated by the increase in peroxide index. In most of the cases there was no change in the identity of the fish oils.Food Chemistry 08/2014; 157:100–104. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.121
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