Stara Zagora, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

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    ABSTRACT: Traditional Eastern medicine has had a successful existence for a long time and has provided functional paths for curing disease. However, some scientists do not accept acupuncture, primarily because the meridian system lacks a physical anatomical basis. To date, scientific theories have not been able to explain the functional paths used by traditional Eastern medicine to cure disease. According to Western medicine, no known anatomical foundation exists for the meridians and unknown nervous, circulatory, endocrine, and immune mechanisms mediate the effects of acupuncture. In the early 1960s, only one hypothesis was proposed to explain the anatomical basis of the meridians. By using different experimental approaches during the past 10 years, the number of scientific papers that report the discovery of different anatomical and physiological evidence confirming the existence of an anatomical basis for the meridian system has increased. Morphological science is greatly challenged to offer a new biomedical theory that explains the possible existence of new bodily systems such as the primo vascular system (PVS). The PVS is a previously unknown system that integrates the features of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and hormonal systems. It also provides a physical substrate for the acupuncture points and meridians. Announcements of the morphological architectonics and the function of the PVS fundamentally changed the basic understanding of biology and medicine because the PVS is involved in the development and the functions of living organisms. We propose a new vision of the anatomical basis for the PVS and the vital energy-called "Qi"-as an electromagnetic wave that is involved very closely with the DNA in the PVS. DNA provides genetic information and it functions as a store of information that can be obtained from the electromagnetic fields of the environment. The PVS is the communication system between living organisms and the environment, and it lies at the lowest level of life. The theory of the PVS could be a good basis for forming a new point of view of Darwin's evolutionary theory. Discoveries in morphological theory-such as discoveries with respect to the PVS-have not been made since the 18th century. For that reason, the PVS needs more attention.
    12/2013; 6(6):331-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jams.2013.10.001
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    ABSTRACT: It has been well defined that obesity is strongly linked with several respiratory symptoms and diseases, but no convincing evidence has been provided for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the current study, we aim to assess the possible prevalence of obesity in patients with COPD in a cross-sectional case-control study of individuals from the region of Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, and to explore whether the body mass has some effect on the lung function of COPD patients. The study included 158 patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) II, III, and IV stages) and 123 individuals unaffected by the disease (control). A higher frequency of obesity compared to the controls (20.3%) was observed in patients with COPD (29.1%, p = 0.093), especially in those with GOLD II stage (37.7%, p = 0.009). Prevalence of obesity was highest in COPD GOLD II, followed by GOLD III and IV stages (p = 0.068). When diabetes was considered as confounding factor, we found a significant prevalence of obesity in COPD patients than the controls with diabetes (p = 0.031). Interestingly, there was a statistically significant moderate positive correlation between the body mass index and forced expiratory volume in one second as a percentage of predicted value in the whole patients' group (R = 0.295, p = 0.0002) as well as in the subgroups of GOLD II (R = 0.257, p = 0.024) and GOLD III COPD (R = 0.259, p = 0.031).The results of our study propose that the increased body mass, particularly obesity is frequent comorbidity to COPD, especially to less severe diseases. Moreover, the results suggest that the higher body weight may provide some protection against the impairment of lung functions in patients with stable COPD.
    Chronic Respiratory Disease 09/2013; DOI:10.1177/1479972313504940
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    ABSTRACT: Immune responses and their modulation within the liver are critical to the outcome of liver malignancies. In late-stage tumors, secreted TGF-β promotes oncogenic functions and can confer tolerogenicity to some immune cells like DCs. The TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in the control of several biological processes, including immunosurveillance. The aim of the present study was to assess CD1a(+) and CD83(+) DCs and to evaluate the impact of TGF-β pathway on DCs maturation and distribution in the liver metastases from gastric and colorectal tumors. The percentage of CD83(+) DCs in the liver tissue, surrounding metastasis and in the metastasis-free liver was measured by flow cytometry, and TGF-β levels were assessed in the tissue supernatant from the peritumoral liver after mononuclear cell isolation and in the sera of the same patients. CD1a(+) and CD83(+) DCs were observed in the tumor stroma and border. Out of 73 patients, there was cytoplasmic reactivity: of TGF-β1 in 37 (50.7%); of Smad4 in 62 (84.9%); of Smad7 in 46 (63%), and of TGFβRII in 39 (53.4%) of the metastases. The TGF-β1 expression in tumor cell cytoplasm correlated with low CD1a(+) and low CD83(+) DCs infiltration. The tissue levels of TGF-β1, measured by ELISA in the supernatant were significantly increased in metastases than in normal liver. Using a two-color FACS analysis, we found that the percentage of HLA-DR(+) CD83(+) DCs in metastases was significantly decreased as compared with metastasis-free liver tissue. In conclusion, the positive and negative correlations between the mediators from the TGF-β pathway implied the existence of imbalance and suppression of this cytokine activity. The presence of increased TGF-β expression by immunohistochemistry in tumor cells was confirmed by detection of increased TGF-β tissue level in the supernatant from the tissue homogenate. The observation of low numbers of CD1a(+) and CD83(+) DCs in tumor stroma correlated with TGF-β overexpression in tumor cells, a fact that well documents the immunosuppressive role of TGF-β in metastasis development. The increased percentage of CD83(+) DCs in the peritumoral tissue supposes that there could be active recruitment or local differentiation of DCs in the metastasis border, but inside the tumor the immune cells recruitment and activity are suppressed by TGF-β and by other cytokines.
    Apmis 09/2013; 121(10). DOI:10.1111/apm.12096


  • Address
    6000, Stara Zagora, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
  • Head of Institution
    Prof. Ivan Stankov
  • Website
  • Phone
    +359 42 699202
  • Fax
    +359 42 672009
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