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    ABSTRACT: The reaction of acetylide anions with carbon disulfide or phenyl isothiocyanate followed by addition of sulfur in the presence of a protonating agent such as a primary amine or alcohol affords 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones or 3-imino-1,2-dithioles in good to excellent yields.
    Tetrahedron Letters 09/2014; 55(38):5283–5285. DOI:10.1016/j.tetlet.2014.07.104
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    ABSTRACT: Xanthine, caffeine and three isomeric dimethyl xanthines (theobromine, theophylline and paraxanthine) are often described as aromatic on various criteria. Here we complete the picture by assessing these molecules for aromaticity on the ring-current criterion. Magnetic response calculations are performed at the B3LYP and CHF/6-31G** ipsocentric levels of theory on structures optimised at the B3LYP/6-31G** level. All five systems display consistent pi-electron ring-currents delocalised around the imidazole moiety in all cases; these are accompanied by localised features on the six-membered rings attributed to nitrogen and oxygen 'lone-pair' pi-electron circulations. All are therefore aromatic on the magnetic criterion, with a 'locally delocalised' ring current in the imidazole moiety, similar to those in the isolated imidazole and methylimidazole molecules.
    Tetrahedron Letters 03/2014; 55(13). DOI:10.1016/j.tetlet.2014.02.027
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    ABSTRACT: Attempts at performing dynamic kinetic resolution on a series of cyclic ketimines by making use of an asymmetric organocatalysed hydrosilylation gave modest conversion and moderate to good enantioselectivities. In the case of α-tetralone derivatives, the use of an N-benzyl protecting group was found to be crucial in obtaining enhanced levels of selectivity.
    Tetrahedron Asymmetry 02/2014; 25:238-244. DOI:10.1016/j.tetasy.2013.11.006
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    ABSTRACT: A series of six near-monodisperse methacrylic macromonomers is prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate using a tertiary amine-functionalized initiator at 50 °C, followed by quaternization with excess 4-vinylbenzyl chloride at 20 °C. GPC analyses indicate polydispersities of around 1.20 and their mean degrees of polymerization (DP) range from 20 to 70, as judged by both (1) H NMR and UV spectroscopy. The former technique is more convenient but the latter proved more accurate for the higher DP values, provided that an appropriate model compound is utilized for calibration. Finally, these new macromonomers are used to prepare sterically stabilized polystyrene latexes with relatively narrow size distributions via alcoholic dispersion polymerization.
    Macromolecular Rapid Communications 01/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1002/marc.201300617
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    ABSTRACT: Core–shell particles have been prepared by surfactant-free emulsion polymerisations of butyl methacrylate in the presence of either linear or highly branched poly(acrylamidomethylpropane sulphonate)s (L-PAMPS or HB-PAMPS) with dithioate end groups: using a “shell-first” approach. In this method the water soluble PAMPS shells were anchored to the cores by polymerisation of BMA from the chain ends. The linear PAMPS produced non-crosslinked poly(AMPS-BMA) particles but the multiple chain ends of the highly branched PAMPS led to crosslinked particles. The particles were loaded with vascular endothelial growth factor or platelet derived growth factor, both of which are cytokines that are known to be important in the production of new blood vessels. The release of the growth factors was shown to be controlled by the architecture of the shell and we propose a mechanism that involves both ionic interaction of the PAMPS with the heparin-binding domains of the growth factors and size exclusion mediated diffusion.
    01/2014; 2(5). DOI:10.1039/C3TB21208D
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    ABSTRACT: Quaternary stereocenters: Chiral α-magnesiated nitriles can be formed by deprotonation and are configurationally stable at low temperature, even for acyclic examples. These can be trapped with electrophiles to give enantiomerically enriched quaternary substituted products (see scheme, TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine).
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 12/2013; 52(30). DOI:10.1002/anie.201303442
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    ABSTRACT: We have prepared a series of mononuclear fac and mer isomers of Ru(ii) complexes containing chelating pyrazolyl-pyridine ligands, to examine their differing ability to act as hydrogen-bond donors in MeCN. This was prompted by our earlier observation that octanuclear cube-like coordination cages that contain these types of metal vertex can bind guests such as isoquinoline-N-oxide (K = 2100 M(-1) in MeCN), with a significant contribution to binding being a hydrogen-bonding interaction between the electron-rich atom of the guest and a hydrogen-bond donor site on the internal surface of the cage formed by a convergent set of CH2 protons close to a 2+ metal centre. Starting with [Ru(L(H))3](2+) [L(H) = 3-(2-pyridyl)-1H-pyrazole] the geometric isomers were separated by virtue of the fact that the fac isomer forms a Cu(i) adduct which the mer isomer does not. Alkylation of the pyrazolyl NH group with methyl iodide or benzyl bromide afforded [Ru(L(Me))3](2+) and [Ru(L(bz))3](2+) respectively, each as their fac and mer isomers; all were structurally characterised. In the fac isomers the convergent group of pendant -CH2R or -CH3 protons defines a hydrogen-bond donor pocket; in the mer isomer these protons do not converge and any hydrogen-bonding involving these protons is expected to be weaker. For both [Ru(L(Me))3](2+) and [Ru(L(bz))3](2+), NMR titrations with isoquinoline-N-oxide in MeCN revealed weak 1 : 1 binding (K ≈ 1 M(-1)) between the guest and the fac isomer of the complex that was absent with the mer isomer, confirming a difference in the hydrogen-bond donor capabilities of these complexes associated with their differing geometries. The weak binding compared to the cage however occurs because of competition from the anions, which are free to form ion-pairs with the mononuclear complex cations in a way that does not happen in the cage complexes. We conclude that (i) the presence of fac tris-chelate sites in the cage to act as hydrogen-bond donors, and (ii) exclusion of counter-ions from the central cavity leaving these hydrogen-bonding sites free to interact with guests, are both important design criteria for future coordination cage hosts.
    Dalton Transactions 10/2013; 43(1). DOI:10.1039/c3dt52479e
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    ABSTRACT: We report the use of near-infrared (NIR) radiation to trigger the irreversible flocculation of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-stabilised polypyrrole nanoparticles in physiological buffer.
    Chemical Communications 10/2013; 49(89). DOI:10.1039/c3cc46385k
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    ABSTRACT: The reactions of water with a number of iridium(iii) complexes relevant to the mechanism for catalytic methanol carbonylation are reported. The iridium acetyl, [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)](-), reacts with water under mild conditions to release CO2 and CH4, rather than the expected acetic acid. Isotopic labeling and kinetic experiments are consistent with a mechanism involving nucleophilic attack by water on a terminal CO ligand of [Ir(CO)2I3(COMe)](-) to give an (undetected) hydroxycarbonyl species. Subsequent decarboxylation and elimination of methane gives [Ir(CO)2I2](-). Similar reactions with water are observed for [Ir(CO)2I3Me](-), [Ir(CO)2(NCMe)I2(COMe)] and [Ir(CO)3I2Me] with the neutral complexes exhibiting markedly higher rates. The results demonstrate that CO2 formation during methanol carbonylation is not restricted to the conventional water gas shift mechanism mediated by [Ir(CO)2I4](-) or [Ir(CO)3I3], but can arise directly from key organo-iridium(iii) intermediates in the carbonylation cycle. An alternative pathway for methane formation not involving the intermediacy of H2 is also suggested. A mechanism is proposed for the conversion MeOH + CO → CO2 + CH4, which may account for the similar rates of formation of the two gaseous by-products during iridium-catalysed methanol carbonylation.
    Dalton Transactions 09/2013; 42(47). DOI:10.1039/c3dt52092g
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoshaving, by tracing an atomic force microscope probe across a surface at elevated load, has been used to fabricate nanostructures in self-assembled monolayers of alkylphosphonates adsorbed at aluminium oxide surfaces. The simple process is implemented under ambient conditions. Because of the strong bond between the alkylphosphonates and the oxide surface, loads in excess of 400 nN are required to pattern the monolayer. Following patterning of octadecylphosphonate SAMs, adsorption of aminobutyl phosphonate yielded features as small as 39 nm. Shaving of monolayers of aryl azide-terminated alkylphosphonates, followed by attachment of polyethylene glycol to unmodified regions in a photochemical coupling reaction, yielded 102 nm trenches into which NeutrAvidin coated, dye-labelled, polymer nanospheres could be deposited, yielding bright fluorescence with little evidence of non-specific adsorption to other regions of the surface. Structures formed in alkylphosphonate films by nanoshaving were used to etch structures into the underlying metal. Because of the isotropic nature of the etch process, and the large grain size, some broadening was observed, but features 25-35 nm deep and 180 nm wide were fabricated.
    Nanoscale 09/2013; 5(22). DOI:10.1039/c3nr04701f
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