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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of the antiplatelet effect of low-dose aspirin led to the hugely successful strategy of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Increasing the dose of aspirin beyond 75-100 mg has never been shown to offer additional efficacy in ACS patients but could possibly increase the risk of bleeding. In the Platelet Inhibition and Patients Outcome (PLATO) study, higher doses of aspirin appeared to neutralise the additional benefit of the potent P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel (Circulation 124: 544-554, 2011). However, higher doses of aspirin have not been shown to have an adverse interaction with the potent P2Y12 inhibition provided by prasugrel and double-dose clopidogrel (Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2013, in press; N Engl J Med 363: 930-942, 2010). This potentially suggests that the mechanism for this interaction is not related to the inhibition of platelet P2Y12 receptors or could simply be a chance finding.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Cell- and tissue-based therapies are innovative strategies to repair and regenerate injured hearts. Despite major advances achieved in optimising these strategies in terms of cell source and delivery method, the clinical outcome of cell-based therapy remains unsatisfactory. The non-genetic approach of ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning to enhance cell- and tissue-based therapies has received much attention in recent years due to its non-invasive drug-free application. Here we discuss the current development of hypoxic/ischemic preconditioning to enhance stem cell-based cardiac repair and regeneration.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study of patients with acute coronary syndromes, ticagrelor reduced mortality compared to clopidogrel but the mechanisms for this mortality reduction remain uncertain. We analysed adverse events (AEs) consistent with either pulmonary infection or sepsis, and subsequent mortality, in 18,421 PLATO patients treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. AEs occurring within 7 days of last dose of study medication were defined as "on-treatment". Serial measurements of blood leukocyte counts, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were performed. Fewer on-treatment pulmonary AEs occurred in the ticagrelor compared to the clopidogrel group (275 vs. 331 respectively; p = 0.019), with fewer deaths following these AEs (33 vs. 71; p < 0.001), particularly in those who remained on study medication three days after AE onset (10 vs. 43; p < 0.001). There were fewer deaths attributed to sepsis in the ticagrelor group (7 vs. 23; p = 0.003). Leukocyte counts were lower in the clopidogrel group during treatment (p < 0.0001 at 1, 3 and 6 months) but not at 1 month post-discontinuation. C-reactive protein increased more at discharge in the ticagrelor group (28.0 ± 38.0 vs. 26.1 ± 36.6 mg/l; p < 0.001) and interleukin-6 remained higher during the first month of treatment with ticagrelor. We conclude that the mortality risk following pulmonary AEs and sepsis in acute coronary syndrome patients appears to be lower during ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel therapy. Further work should assess whether ticagrelor and clopidogrel have differential effects on immune signalling.
    Platelets 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of the cardiovascular system represents a classical problem in which the solid and fluid phases interact intimately, and so is a rich field of application for state-of-the-art fluid-solid interaction (FSI) analyses. In this paper, we focus on the human aorta. Solution of the full FSI problem requires knowledge of the material properties of the wall and information on vessel support. We show that variation of distensibility along the aorta can be obtained from four-dimensional image data using image registration. If pressure data at one point in the vessel are available, these can be converted to absolute values. Alternatively, values of pulse wave velocity along the vessel can be obtained. The quality of the extracted data is improved by the incorporation into the registration of a regularisation term based on the one-dimensional wave equation. The method has been validated using simulated data. For idealised vessels, the accuracy with which the distensibility and wave velocity can be extracted is high (1%-2%). The method is applied to six clinical datasets from patients with mild coarctation, for which it is shown that wave velocity along the aorta is relatively constant. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International journal for numerical methods in biomedical engineering. 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin has previously been the standard of care for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) but international guidelines have been evolving over the last 4 years with the introduction of prasugrel and ticagrelor. In October 2009, prasugrel was approved in the UK by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for use in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), diabetic patients with non-ST-elevation (NSTE) ACS undergoing PCI and patients with stent thrombosis while other ACS patients were to continue receiving clopidogrel. Ticagrelor was approved in October 2011 by NICE for use in patients with moderate-to-high risk NSTE ACS and STEMI undergoing primary PCI and was recommended in preference to clopidogrel in European guidelines. These recommendations were adopted in our region, constituting a population of 1.8 million. We studied the effect of changing patterns of P2Y12 inhibitor usage on levels of platelet inhibition during maintenance therapy. Patients admitted to Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, with NSTE ACS or STEMI managed with primary PCI were enrolled over two periods of time: May 2010 to November 2011 (T1); and October 2012 to February 2013 (T2). Venous blood samples were obtained at 1 month after the onset of ACS. Light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) was performed and maximum aggregation response to ADP 20 μM was determined. A total of 116 patients were enrolled in T1 of whom 82 were receiving clopidogrel and 34 were receiving prasugrel. Twenty-nine patients were enrolled in T2, all of whom were receiving ticagrelor. Mean LTA results according to treatment with clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor were 57 ± 18%, 41 ± 20%, and 31 ± 12%, respectively. Prasugrel was associated with significantly lower platelet aggregation responses than clopidogrel (p < 0.001) and ticagrelor was associated with significantly lower platelet aggregation responses than both prasugrel (p = 0.015) and clopidogrel (p < 0.001). We conclude that international guidelines and NICE approval have led to increasing levels of P2Y12 inhibition in ACS patients in this UK centre between May 2010 and February 2013. Ticagrelor was associated with significantly greater P2Y12 inhibition than both clopidogrel and prasugrel during maintenance therapy.
    Platelets 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We analysed candidate platelet function disorder genes in 13 index cases with a history of excessive bleeding in association with a significant reduction in dense granule secretion and impaired aggregation to a panel of platelet agonists. Five of the index cases also had mild thrombocytopenia. Heterozygous alterations in FLI1 and RUNX1, encoding Friend Leukemia Integration-1 and RUNT-related transcription factor 1, respectively, which have a fundamental role in megakaryocytopoeisis, were identified in 6 cases, 4 of whom had mild thrombocytopenia. Two FLI1 alterations predicting p.Arg337Trp and p.Tyr343Cys substitutions in the FLI1 DNA binding domain abolished transcriptional activity of FLI1. A 4 bp deletion in FLI1, and 2 splicing alterations and a nonsense variation in RUNX1, which were predicted to cause haploinsufficiency of either FLI1 or RUNX1, were also identified. Our findings suggest that alterations in FLI1 and RUNX1 may be common in patients with platelet dense granule secretion defects and mild thrombocytopenia.
    Blood 10/2013;
  • Blood 07/2013; 122(4):471-3.
  • Annals of Hematology 06/2013;
  • Cardiovascular Research 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Several cohort studies have investigated the molecular basis of von Willebrand disease (VWD); however, these have mostly focused on European and North American populations. This study aimed to investigate mutation spectrum in 26 index cases (IC) from Turkey diagnosed with all three VWD types, the majority (73%) with parents who were knowingly related. IC were screened for mutations using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and analysis of all von Willebrand factor gene (VWF) exons and exon/intron boundaries. Selected missense mutations were expressed in vitro. Candidate VWF mutations were identified in 25 of 26 IC and included propeptide missense mutations in four IC (two resulting in type 1 and two in recessive 2A), all influencing VWF expression in vitro. Four missense mutations, a nonsense mutation and a small in-frame insertion resulting in type 2A were also identified. Of 15 type 3 VWD IC, 13 were homozygous and two compound heterozygous for 14 candidate mutations predicted to result in lack of expression and two propeptide missense changes. Identification of intronic breakpoints of an exon 17-18 deletion suggested that the mutation resulted from non-homologous end joining. This study provides further insight into the pathogenesis of VWD in a population with a high degree of consanguineous partnerships.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2013; 110(2).
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