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Faculty of Life Sciences
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School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering
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School of Materials
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Publication History View all

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters with multi-layer stacked structures have been developed. They consist of multi-layer beams, of zigzag configurations, with rigid masses attached between the beams. The rigid masses, which also serve as spacers, are attached to each layer to tune the frequencies of the harvester. Close resonance frequencies and considerable power output can be achieved in multiple modes by varying the positions of the masses. A modal approach is introduced to determine the modal performance conveniently using the mass ratio and the modal electromechanical coupling coefficient, and the required modal parameters are derived using the finite element method. Mass ratio represents the influence of modal mechanical behaviour on the power density. Since the modes with larger mass ratios cause the remaining modes to have smaller mass ratios and lower power densities, a screening process using the modal approach is developed to determine the optimal or near-optimal performance of the harvesters when altering mass positions. This procedure obviates the need for full analysis by pre-selecting the harvester configurations with close resonances and favourable values of mass ratio initially. Furthermore, the multi-layer stacked designs using the modal approach can be used to develop harvesters with different sizes with the power ranging from microwatts to milliwatts.
    Journal of Sound and Vibration 10/2014; 333(21):5386–5411.
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    ABSTRACT: Cement paste is a binder for cementitious materials and plays a critical role in their engineering-scale properties. Understanding fracture processes in such materials requires knowledge of damage evolution in cement paste. A site-bond model with elastic-brittle spring bundles is developed here for analysis of the mechanical behaviour of cement paste. It incorporates key microstructure information obtained from high resolution micro-CT. Volume fraction and size distribution of anhydrous cement grains are used for calculating model length scale and elasticity. Porosity and pore size distribution are used to allocate local failure energies. Macroscopic damage emerges from the generation of micro-crack population represented by bond removals. Effects of spatial distribution, porosity and sizes of pores on tensile strength and damage are investigated quantitatively. Results show a good agreement with experiment data, demonstrating that the proposed technology can predict mechanical and fracture behaviour of cementitious materials based exclusively on microstructure information.
    Construction and Building Materials 09/2014; 66:731–742.
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    ABSTRACT: Oncofoetal antigens are present during foetal development with generally limited expression in the adult but are upregulated in cancer. These molecules can sometimes be used to diagnose or follow treatment of tumours or as a target for different immunotherapies. The 5T4 oncofoetal glycoprotein was identified by searching for shared surface molecules of human trophoblast and cancer cells with the rationale that they may function to allow survival of the foetus as a semi-allograft in the mother or a tumour in its host, potentially influencing growth, invasion or altered immune surveillance of the host. 5T4 tumour selective expression has stimulated the development of 5T4 vaccine, 5T4 antibody targeted-superantigen and 5T4 antibody-drug therapies through preclinical and into clinical studies. It is now apparent that 5T4 expression is a marker of the use (or not) of several cellular pathways relevant to tumour growth and spread. Thus 5T4 expression is mechanistically associated with the directional movement of cells through epithelial mesenchymal transition, facilitation of CXCL12/CXCR4 chemotaxis, blocking of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin while favouring non-canonical pathway signalling. These processes are highly regulated in development and in normal adult tissues but can contribute to the spread of cancer cells. Understanding the differential impact of these pathways marked by 5T4 can potentially improve existing, or aid development of novel cancer treatment strategies.
    Seminars in Cancer Biology 07/2014;

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