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SourceAvailable from: Chris D Orme[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we develop an info-metric framework for testing hypotheses about structural instability in nonlinear, dynamic models estimated from the information in population moment conditions. Our methods are designed to distinguish between three states of the world: (i) the model is structurally stable in the sense that the population moment condition holds at the same parameter value throughout the sample; (ii) the model parameters change at some point in the sample but otherwise the model is correctly specified; and (iii) the model exhibits more general forms of instability than a single shift in the parameters. An advantage of the info-metric approach is that the null hypotheses concerned are formulated in terms of distances between various choices of probability measures constrained to satisfy (i) and (ii), and the empirical measure of the sample. Under the alternative hypotheses considered, the model is assumed to exhibit structural instability at a single point in the sample, referred to as the break point; our analysis allows for the break point to be either fixed a priori or treated as occuring at some unknown point within a certain fraction of the sample. We propose various test statistics that can be thought of as sample analogs of the distances described above, and derive their limiting distributions under the appropriate null hypothesis. The limiting distributions of our statistics are nonstandard but coincide with various distributions that arise in the literature on structural instability testing within the Generalized Method of Moments framework. A small simulation study illustrates the finite sample performance of our test statistics.Econometric Reviews 03/2015; 34(3). DOI:10.1080/07474938.2014.944477
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ABSTRACT: Chronic anorexia nervosa (cAN) is a challenging presentation for the clinician. Motivation to recover is low, and outcomes are often poor. Within this study. six participants, currently in treatment, were interviewed. These interview transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The results highlighted five superordinate themes resulted from the analysis and these referred to the following points: (1) 'making sense of AN', (2) 'experience of treatment/treatment', (3) 'interpersonal relationships', (4) 'battling with anorexia' and (5) 'staff pessimism in the treatment of cAN'. These results highlighted how the self is entwined with anorexia nervosa and thus making it incredibly difficult to perceive a life without cAN.Journal of Health Psychology 01/2015; 20(1):27-36. DOI:10.1177/1359105313497526
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ABSTRACT: Astroglia are the homoeostatic cells of the central nervous system that control a normal function of synaptically connected neuronal networks and contribute to brain defense. Recent advances in comprehension of pathological potential of astroglia indicate that astrocytes are fundamental for most (if not all) neurological diseases. Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate prominent astroglial atrophy and astroglial asthenia occurring in most of neuropsychiatric illnesses. In chronic diseases such as schizophrenia and major depression, decrease in astroglial numbers and functional capabilities are, arguably, fundamental for pathological developments being responsible for neurotransmitter disbalance and failures in connectivity within neural networks. In neurodegenerative diseases atrophic changes in astrocytes are complemented by astrogliosis triggered by specific lesions such as senile plaques or dying neurons, these two processes contributing to cognitive decline and ultimately neuronal death. It is therefore possible to hypothesize that neuropsychiatric diseases represent a chronic astrogliopathology, which compromises glial homeostatic and defensive capabilities, and the degree and the alacrity of gliodegenerative changes define the progression and outcome of these disorders.The Neuroscientist 12/2014; 20(6):576-588. DOI:10.1177/1073858413510208
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