19
63.33
3.33
55

Publication History View all

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage tumours. They are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Treatment is usually limited to surgical resection; however, survival of patients with high-grade chondrosarcoma is poor, even with wide surgical resection. Induction of apoptosis in chondrosarcoma cells, either directly or by enhancement of the response to chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation, may be a route by which outcome can be improved. In this article, we review potential molecular targets that regulate chondrocyte apoptosis and discuss the experimental evidence for their utility.
    International Journal of Experimental Pathology 10/2010; 91(5):387-93. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2613.2010.00749.x
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer cells can exist in a hypoxic microenvironment, causing radioresistance. Nitric oxide (NO) is a radiosensitiser of mammalian cells. NO-NSAIDs are a potential means of delivering NO to prostate cancer cells. This study aimed to determine the effect and mechanism of action of NO-sulindac and radiation, on prostate cancer cells and stroma, under normoxia (21% oxygen) and chronic hypoxia (0.2% oxygen). Using clonogenic assays, at a surviving fraction of 10% the sensitisation enhancement ratios of radiation plus NO-sulindac over radiation alone on PC-3 cells were 1.22 and 1.42 under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. 3D culture of PC-3 cells revealed significantly reduced sphere diameter in irradiated spheres treated with NO-sulindac. Neither NO-sulindac nor sulindac radiosensitised prostate stromal cells under normoxia or hypoxia. HIF-1α protein levels were reduced by NO-sulindac exposure and radiation at 21 and 0.2% oxygen. Alkaline Comet assay analysis suggested an increased rate of single strand DNA breaks and slower repair of these lesions in PC-3 cells treated with NO-sulindac prior to irradiation. There was a higher level of γ-H2AX production and hence double strand DNA breaks following irradiation of NO-sulindac treated PC-3 cells. At all radiation doses and oxygen levels tested, treatment of 2D and 3D cultures of PC-3 cells with NO-sulindac prior to irradiation radiosensitised PC-3, with minimal effect on stromal cells. Hypoxia response inhibition and increased DNA double strand breaks are potential mechanisms of action. Neoadjuvent and concurrent use of NO-NSAIDs have the potential to improve radiotherapy treatment of prostate cancer under normoxia and hypoxia.
    Biochemical pharmacology 09/2010; 81(2):203-10. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2010.09.022
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ContextMedical therapies derived from natural sources have been used for centuries. Many are as effective as synthetic medications. The use of plant-derived medications for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is no exception. In particular, extracts of Serenoa repens (SrE), the fruit of the American dwarf palm, are widely available, and their use is rising throughout the world.ObjectiveThe underlying basis for SrE popularity stems from its safety and tolerability profile. However, despite its extensive use, its mechanism of action has not been definitely clarified. In this paper, we analyse the scientific basis for SrE efficacy in the treatment of BPH and explore the mechanisms by which its effects are induced.Evidence acquisitionThis literature review focuses on the actions of the lipidosterolic SrE on a host of targets. Several cellular and molecular techniques have been used to characterise the biologic pathways that may mediate these actions. Morphologic studies have been carried out to identify the changes of prostate ultrastructure and to determine modifications that may shed light on the mechanisms underlying SrE efficacy.Evidence synthesisSelectivity of the action of SrE for the prostate has been demonstrated. There are several morphologic changes, and these are accompanied by an increase in the apoptotic index of the gland, along with inhibition of the activity of the 5α-reductase isoenzymes. The drug also acts on a number of other biologic systems and shows a capacity to moderate the androgenic, apoptotic, and inflammatory pathways of the cell. These pathways have been implicated in the hyperplastic process.ConclusionsThe interaction between prostate cells and SrE is manifest at several levels of the gland's biological spectrum and results in antiandrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. These effects may account for the beneficial response triggered in some patients with BPH treated with SrE.
    European Urology Supplements 12/2009; DOI:10.1016/j.eursup.2009.11.005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), a member of the fibroblast growth receptor family, was recently reported to be more abundantly expressed in malignant than benign prostate cells. A single nucleotide polymorphism at position 388 of the FGFR4 amino-acid sequence results in the substitution of glycine (Gly) with arginine (Arg) and higher frequency of the ArgArg genotype was previously found in prostate cancer patients. DNA was extracted from the blood drawn from 399 prostate cancer patients, 150 BPH patients and 294 healthy community controls. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out and single nucleotide polymorphisms of FGFR4 were identified by restriction enzyme digestion. No overall association is detectable between the Arg allele and increased prostate cancer risk. Subgroup analysis shows a higher incidence of the heterozygous ArgGly genotype in cancer cases than in the combined group of BPH and controls (P<0.05); this difference is statistically significant between cancer and BPH patients but not between cancer cases and community controls. The single nucleotide polymorphism Gly(388)Arg in FGFR4 is not associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Scottish men. This observation is in contrast with results from two previous studies conducted in the USA and Japan.
    Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases 11/2009; 13(1):94-6. DOI:10.1038/pcan.2009.49
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research into the hypoxic tumour microenvironment is accelerating and the reversal of hypoxia is increasingly being suggested as a mechanism for improving cancer treatment. Recent studies have suggested that hypoxia is also a feature in prostate cancer and is associated with a poor prognosis. Hypoxia has been shown to cause radio-resistance and hence hamper one of the major treatments for prostate cancer. However, unlike other solid tumours, such as cervical and head-and-neck cancer, there are inconsistencies and unanswered questions about the relevance of hypoxia in prostate cancer. This review outlines the role of low-oxygen conditions in prostate cancer and the areas where further studies are required.
    BJU International 11/2009; 105(1):8-13. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.08921.x
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanical loading of articular cartilage stimulates the metabolism of resident chondrocytes and induces the synthesis of molecules to maintain the integrity of the cartilage. Mechanical signals modulate biochemical activity and changes in cell behavior through mechanotransduction. Compression of cartilage results in complex changes within the tissue including matrix and cell deformation, hydrostatic and osmotic pressure, fluid flow, altered matrix water content, ion concentration and fixed charge density. These changes are detected by mechanoreceptors on the cell surface, which include mechanosensitive ion channels and integrins that on activation initiate intracellular signalling cascades leading to tissue remodelling. Excessive mechanical loading also influences chondrocyte metabolism but unlike physiological stimulation leads to a quantitative imbalance between anabolic and catabolic activity resulting in depletion of matrix components. In this article we focus on the role of mechanical signalling in the maintenance of articular cartilage, and discuss how alterations in normal signalling can lead to pathology.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 07/2009; 19(4):457-69. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00912.x
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide-donating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are safer than traditional NSAIDs and inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells with greater potency than NSAIDs. In vivo, prostate cancer deposits are found in a hypoxic environment which induces resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects and mechanism of action of a NO-NSAID called NO-sulindac on the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line under hypoxic conditions. NO-sulindac was found to have pro-apoptotic, cytotoxic, and anti-invasive effect on PC-3 cells under normoxia and hypoxia. NO-sulindac was significantly more cytotoxic than sulindac at all oxygen levels. The sulindac/linker and NO-releasing subunits both contributed to the cytotoxic effects of NO-sulindac. Resistance of PC-3 cells to NO-sulindac was induced as the oxygen concentration declined. Hypoxia-induced chemoresistance was reversed by knocking-down hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA using RNAi. Nuclear HIF-1alpha levels were upregulated at 0.2% oxygen but reduced by treatment with NO-sulindac, as was Akt phosphorylation. NO-sulindac treatment of hypoxic PC-3 cells transfected with a reporter construct, downregulated activation of the hypoxia response element (HRE) promoter. Co-transfection of PC-3 cells with the HRE promoter reporter construct and myr-Akt (constitutively active Akt) plasmids reversed the NO-sulindac induced reduction in HRE activation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of hypoxic, NO-sulindac treated PC-3 cells showed downregulation of lysyl oxidase and carbonic anhydrase IX mRNA expression. Collectively, these novel findings demonstrate that NO-sulindac directly inhibits the hypoxia response of PC-3 prostate cancer cells by inhibiting HIF-1alpha translation via the Akt signalling pathway. The ability of NO-sulindac to inhibit tumour adaption to hypoxia has considerable relevance to the future management of prostate cancer with the same cellular properties as PC-3.
    International Journal of Cancer 01/2009; 124(1):223-32. DOI:10.1002/ijc.23934
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New light has been shed on the mechanisms of action of colchicine in crystal-associated arthropathies. Colchicine, long used to treat gout, arrests microtubule assembly and inhibits many cellular functions. At micromolar concentrations, it suppresses monosodium urate crystal-induced NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein-3 (NALP3) inflammasome-driven caspase-1 activation, IL-1beta processing and release, and L-selectin expression on neutrophils. At nanomolar concentrations, colchicine blocks the release of a crystal-derived chemotactic factor from neutrophil lysosomes, blocks neutrophil adhesion to endothelium by modulating the distribution of adhesion molecules on the endothelial cells, and inhibits monosodium urate crystal-induced production of superoxide anions from neutrophils. Cyto-chrome P450 3A4, the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein, and the drugs that bind these proteins influence its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Trial evidence supports its efficacy in acute gout and in preventing gout flares, but it has narrow therapeutic index, and overdosage is associated with gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, neuromuscular, and cerebral toxicity; bone marrow damage; and high mortality.
    Current Rheumatology Reports 07/2008; 10(3):218-27. DOI:10.1007/s11926-008-0036-3
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oestrogens have been implicated as a cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Previous animal studies led to the hypothesis that oestrogens can stimulate prostate growth, resulting in hyperplasia of the gland. In humans, the precise role of oestrogens in BPH pathogenesis is currently unclear. We investigated the direct effects of oestradiol on the proliferation of BPH-derived prostate cells in culture. Oestradiol (10(-7) and 10(-6) M) moderately increased the proliferation of stromal cells in culture; this stimulation was antagonised by anti-oestrogen ICI 182 780, indicating an oestrogen receptor (ER)-mediated mechanism. By contrast, oestradiol had no effects on the proliferation of epithelial cells in culture. Parameters that can determine the response of stromal cells to oestrogens, including expression of the two ER subtypes and aromatase activity, were investigated. ER beta expression in stromal cells in culture was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, and was confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR showing higher expression of ER beta than ER alpha mRNA in stromal cells. Aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgen precursors to oestrogens, was also examined. Aromatase mRNA and activity were detected in stromal, but not epithelial cells in culture, suggesting a mechanism whereby oestrogen concentrations can be regulated in the BPH stroma. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that oestrogens play a role in the pathogenesis of BPH, a disease characterised predominantly by stromal overgrowth.
    Journal of Endocrinology 07/2008; 197(3):483-91. DOI:10.1677/JOE-07-0470
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To develop concise, patient-focussed, up to date, evidence-based, expert consensus recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), which are adaptable and designed to assist physicians and allied health care professionals in general and specialist practise throughout the world. Sixteen experts from four medical disciplines (primary care, rheumatology, orthopaedics and evidence-based medicine), two continents and six countries (USA, UK, France, Netherlands, Sweden and Canada) formed the guidelines development team. A systematic review of existing guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA published between 1945 and January 2006 was undertaken using the validated appraisal of guidelines research and evaluation (AGREE) instrument. A core set of management modalities was generated based on the agreement between guidelines. Evidence before 2002 was based on a systematic review conducted by European League Against Rheumatism and evidence after 2002 was updated using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library and HTA reports. The quality of evidence was evaluated, and where possible, effect size (ES), number needed to treat, relative risk or odds ratio and cost per quality-adjusted life years gained were estimated. Consensus recommendations were produced following a Delphi exercise and the strength of recommendation (SOR) for propositions relating to each modality was determined using a visual analogue scale. Twenty-three treatment guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA were identified from the literature search, including six opinion-based, five evidence-based and 12 based on both expert opinion and research evidence. Twenty out of 51 treatment modalities addressed by these guidelines were universally recommended. ES for pain relief varied from treatment to treatment. Overall there was no statistically significant difference between non-pharmacological therapies [0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16, 0.34] and pharmacological therapies (ES=0.39, 95% CI 0.31, 0.47). Following feedback from Osteoarthritis Research International members on the draft guidelines and six Delphi rounds consensus was reached on 25 carefully worded recommendations. Optimal management of patients with OA hip or knee requires a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities of therapy. Recommendations cover the use of 12 non-pharmacological modalities: education and self-management, regular telephone contact, referral to a physical therapist, aerobic, muscle strengthening and water-based exercises, weight reduction, walking aids, knee braces, footwear and insoles, thermal modalities, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture. Eight recommendations cover pharmacological modalities of treatment including acetaminophen, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) non-selective and selective oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical NSAIDs and capsaicin, intra-articular injections of corticosteroids and hyaluronates, glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulphate for symptom relief; glucosamine sulphate, chondroitin sulphate and diacerein for possible structure-modifying effects and the use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of refractory pain. There are recommendations covering five surgical modalities: total joint replacements, unicompartmental knee replacement, osteotomy and joint preserving surgical procedures; joint lavage and arthroscopic debridement in knee OA, and joint fusion as a salvage procedure when joint replacement had failed. Strengths of recommendation and 95% CIs are provided. Twenty-five carefully worded recommendations have been generated based on a critical appraisal of existing guidelines, a systematic review of research evidence and the consensus opinions of an international, multidisciplinary group of experts. The recommendations may be adapted for use in different countries or regions according to the availability of treatment modalities and SOR for each modality of therapy. These recommendations will be revised regularly following systematic review of new research evidence as this becomes available.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 03/2008; 16(2):137-62. DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2007.12.013
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.