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    ABSTRACT: The native English speaker episteme continues to dominate in English Language Teaching (ELT) despite a growing body of research stressing the need for change in the light of the rise of English as a lingua franca. To support the proposed changes, this study explores what perceptions English learners, as major stakeholders, have in relation to the sociolinguistic realities of English and how these relate to learning English, as well as their responses to Global Englishes instruction in a Japanese university. 52 participants, divided into a control group (taking a Global Englishes content-based English course) and an experimental group (taking a Tourism content-based course), were surveyed with pre- and post-course questionnaires (N = 52) and interviewed (n = 4) about their attitudes and perceptions over one semester. The participants were found to have had positive attitudes towards native English, which were influenced by a host of factors including their familiarity with native English, motivation, pedagogical beliefs and stereotypical beliefs meaning unclear about the English language. The Global Englishes class was also found to have had an important impact on students' attitudes. These findings help bridge the gap between theory and practice by exploring what impact a Global Englishes orientated approach may have on language English learners in the ELT classroom.
    System 09/2013; 41(3):786–803.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naïve inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naïve biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The first task required participants to predict and explain feature outcomes in both an offspring and a sibling, in a modified version of the phenotypic similarity task. In the second task, participants offered explanations for instances of parent-offspring dissimilarity and grandparent-offspring resemblance (phenotypic difference task). The inclusion of two tasks and a broad age range revealed significant age trends between 4 and 10 years in naïve inheritance concepts. However, there was little consistency in children's inheritance explanations within or across tasks. The findings are discussed with reference to debates concerning the development and structure of naïve biology concepts.
    British Journal of Developmental Psychology 06/2012; 30(Pt 2):225-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither significant drawbacks nor benefits in terms of their behavioral adjustment, sibling relationship quality and self-concept compared to control group siblings, either during or following intervention use. Parents and siblings perceived improvements in sibling interaction since the outset of ABA, with parents somewhat more positive in their views than were siblings. Social support was associated with better sibling outcomes in all groups. Implications for supporting families using ABA are considered.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 07/2011; 42(5):847-62.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes how complexity theory principles relating to self-emergence and connectivity have been employed to inform our recent developmental work in Scottish physical education. We suggest that these complexity principles have purchase in postmodern times characterised by uncertainty, multiplicity, and contradiction (Fernandez-Balboa, 1997). We cite examples from the development and delivery of a Developmental Physical Education Programme in Scotland to assert that complex learning principles (Light, 2008; Morrison, 2008) can be employed to structure curriculum and pedagogy endeavours. These examples from practice highlight the ways in which a complexity-oriented learning approach provides a challenge to hierarchical, reductionist, and behaviourist notions of learning which have long held a strong foothold in the field of physical education (Light, 2008). At the same time, we pay attention to critical questions which have been raised regarding the practicality of structuring educational practice with emerging theories such as complexity theory (Davis & Sumara, 2006).
    Sport Education and Society 01/2011; 16(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To develop pupils' team invasion games (TIG) performance within physical education (PE), practitioners have traditionally adopted teacher-centred, skill-focused approaches. Teaching Games for Understanding and the Tactical approach are alternative approaches to TIG teaching that aim to develop overall game performance, including decision-making performance. Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to conduct an ecologically valid investigation into the effects a tactical teaching approach had on game knowledge, game playing performance and pupil perception of decision-making ability compared to authentic teaching in a Scottish secondary school. Participants and setting: Fifty-two pupils (24 female; 28 male; age = 12.5 ± 0.3 years) participated in this study. The pupils were made up of two secondary 1 (S1) classes from a Scottish urban state secondary school. Both classes were heterogeneous in terms of gender and ability and the pupils from each class had similar pre-secondary school PE experiences. Two teachers, Lisa and Anthony, took part in this study. Both Lisa (age = 23 years) and Anthony (age = 27 years) had taught in the school for one year. Intervention: The overall aim for both teachers was to develop the pupils' performance in a game of 4v4 basketball over a five-week block. The teaching strategies Lisa used to reach this aim were based on the Tactical approach to teaching games. Using pupil-centred teaching strategies such as problem-solving, discussing and reflecting, Lisa's aims were to develop the pupils' tactical understanding and game performance in relation to creating space on and off-the-ball to keep possession and progress towards target, re-gaining possession and counter attack, and denying space in the key area. Anthony followed the PE department's guidelines for teaching basketball to improve the pupils' performance in 4v4 basketball. This involved the application of direct teaching strategies to teach the chest pass, the bounce pass, dribbling, the set shot, the jump shot and the lay-up. Data collection: Data from focus group interviews was gathered in order to elicit pupils' knowledge and experiences of learning to play TIG. The pupils were recorded on video before and after the intervention to determine any differences in game playing performance between groups. Finally, a questionnaire was administered in order to establish the pupils' perception of their own decision-making abilities both on and off-the-ball. Data analysis: The focus group interview data were analysed by two experienced researchers who identified key experiences (or bodies of knowledge) about basketball that the pupils in each group discussed. In order to analyse the participants' game performance in offence both on and off-the-ball, their tactical decisions were coded as 'good' or 'poor', and their on-the-ball skill execution was coded as either 'successful' or 'unsuccessful'. The questionnaire data were analysed using a mixed design two-way repeated measures ANOVA to test for differences between the two groups in their perception of decision-making ability. Findings: During the focus group interviews, the group that took part in the traditional, more skill-focused, lessons discussed the technical components of basketball skills, and the pupils from the game-based lessons discussed the different principles of play that they applied during practices and games. The 4v4 game performance data demonstrated that the game-based group made significantly more good decisions on and off-the-ball compared to the skill-focused group. There were no significant differences between groups post intervention in terms of on-the-ball skill execution. The pupils in the game-based group believed that their decision-making abilities, both on and off the ball, had improved. In contrast, the class that took part in the skill-focused lessons believed that their decision-making abilities had deteriorated over the five-week period. Conclusion: The findings from this research provide valuable information in relation to the learning outcomes produced by different teaching approaches during an investigation high in ecological validity. In order to further our understanding teaching TIG, future research should examine the teaching and learning processes involved when adopting such approaches.
    Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 12/2010; 16(1):15-32.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the development and consistency of children's (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) naïve concepts of inheritance using three tasks. A modified adoption task asked participants to distinguish between biological and social parentage in their predictions and explanations of the origins of different feature types (physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The causal mechanisms task asked participants to rate their preference for various mechanisms of inheritance for physical features. The family relatedness task required participants to provide judgements on the relatedness of family members and explain their understanding of kinship terms. Developmental trends were revealed in all three tasks. There was a trend towards increased consistency in judgements across tasks with age, but low correlations between explanations given in different task contexts. Findings are discussed with reference to the onset and variability of inheritance concepts and the implications for education and future research.
    British Journal of Developmental Psychology 09/2010; 28(Pt 3):523-46.
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    ABSTRACT: We explored implicit learning in a group of typically developing and developmental dyslexic primary school children (9-12 y) using a modified artificial grammar learning task. Performance was calculated using two measures of performance: a perfect free recall (PFR) score and a grammaticality judgment score. Both groups of children required the same amount of exposure to memorize the items (i.e. PFR performance) (t((30))=1.620, p>0.05; p-value reported two-tailed). However, repeated measures ANOVA (Participant type x Grammaticality x Chunk strength) revealed a Participant type effect for grammaticality judgment scores (F((1,30))=4.521, p<0.05; p-value reported two-tailed). Typically developing children showed above chance performance in terms of both grammaticality and chunk strength of the stimuli. Children with developmental dyslexia on the other hand, failed to show implicit learning irrespective of the substring characteristics (i.e. grammaticality or chunk strength). We propose that children with developmental dyslexia may be impaired in their implicit rule abstraction mechanism, which can partially explain their persistent reading problems.
    Dyslexia 05/2010; 16(2):143-61.
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the extent to which computer efficacy, computer use, and computer phobia could predict the level of students' academic performance in a Computer Graphics course. A total of 189 undergraduates of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria, served as the sample for the study. The study sample responded to four instruments: Computer Self-Efficacy Scale, Computer Use Scale, Computer Phobia Scale (CPS), and Computer Performance Test. Data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation, Multiple Regression, and Analysis of Variance. The findings revealed that the three independent variables, when taken together, were effective in predicting students' academic performance in Computer Graphics course. Meanwhile, each of the independent variables contributed to the prediction of dependent variable. On the basis of these findings, suggestions were made.
    04/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Characterising how socio-cognitive abilities develop has been crucial to understanding the wider devel-opment of typically developing children. It is equally central to understanding developmental pathways in children with intellectual disabilities such as Down's syndrome. While the process of acquisition of socio-cognitive abilities in typical development and in autism has received consider-able attention, socio-cognitive development in Down's syndrome has received far less scrutiny. Initial work in the 1970s and 1980s provided impor-tant insights into the emergence of socio-cognitive abilities in the children's early years, and recently there has been a marked revival of interest in this area, with research focusing both on a broader range of abilities and on a wider age range. This annotation reviews some of these more recent find-ings, identifies outstanding gaps in current under-standing, and stresses the importance of the development of theory in advancing research and knowledge in this field. Barriers to theory building are discussed and the potential utility of adopting a transactional approach to theory building illustrated with reference to a model of early socio-cognitive development in Down's syndrome. The need for a more extensive model of social cognition is empha-sised, as is the need for larger-scale, finer-grained, longitudinal work which recognises the within-individual and within-group variability which char-acterises this population. The value of drawing on new technologies and of adapting innovative research paradigms from other areas of typical and atypical child psychology is also highlighted.
    Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 02/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores implicit learning in typically developing and primary school children (9-12 years old) with developmental dyslexia using an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. Two experiments were conducted, which differed in time of presentation and nature of the instructional set (experiment 1--implicit instructions vs experiment 2--explicit instructions). Repeated measures analysis of variance (group x grammaticality x chunk strength) showed a group effect only in experiment 1 (implicit instructions), with only the typically developing children showing evidence of AGL. There was a grammaticality effect (adherence to the rules) for both groups in the two experimental situations. We suggest that the typically developing children exhibited intact implicit learning as manifested in AGL performance, whereas children with developmental dyslexia failed to provide such evidence due to possible mediating cognitive developmental factors.
    Annals of Dyslexia 04/2009; 59(1):55-77.
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