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- SourceAvailable from: Kathleen Mandt[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We describe a formation scenario of Enceladus constrained by the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio (D/H) in the gas plumes as measured by the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer. We propose that, similarly to Titan, Enceladus formed from icy planetesimals that were partly devolatilized during their migration within the Kronian subnebula. In our scenario, at least primordial Ar, CO, and N 2 were devolatilized from planetesimals during their drift within the subnebula, due to the increasing temperature and pressure conditions of the gas phase. The origin of methane is still uncertain since it might have been either trapped in the planetesimals of Enceladus during their formation in the solar nebula or produced via serpentinization reactions in the satellite's interior. If the methane of Enceladus originates from the solar nebula, then its D/H ratio should range between ∼4.7 × 10 −5 and 1.5 × 10 −4 . Moreover, Xe/H 2 O and Kr/H 2 O ratios are predicted to be equal to ∼7 × 10 −7 and 7 × 10 −6 , respectively, in the satellite's interior. On the other hand, if the methane of Enceladus results from serpentinization reactions, then its D/H ratio should range between ∼2.1 × 10 −4 and 4.5 × 10 −4 . In this case, Kr/H 2 O should not exceed ∼10 −10 and Xe/H 2 O should range between ∼1 × 10 −7 and 7 × 10 −7 in the satellite's interior. Future spacecraft missions, such as Titan Saturn System Mission, will have the capability to provide new insight into the origin of Enceladus by testing these observational predictions.The Astrophysical Journal 03/2016; 701(1):39-42. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/701/1/L39;
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ABSTRACT: Studies with murine models suggest that maternal exposure to aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists may impair mammary gland differentiation and increase the susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in offspring. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these perturbations remain largely unknown. Previously, we reported that the AhR agonists 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced CpG methylation of the breast cancer-1 (BRCA-1) gene and reduced BRCA-1 expression in breast cancer cell lines. Based on the information both the human and rat BRCA-1 genes harbor xenobiotic responsive elements (XRE = 5'-GCGTG-3'), which are binding targets for the AhR, we extended our studies to the analysis of offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats treated during gestation with TCDD alone or in combination with the dietary AhR antagonist resveratrol (Res). We report that the in utero exposure to TCDD increased the number of terminal end buds (TEB) and reduced BRCA-1 expression in mammary tissue of offspring. The treatment with TCDD induced occupancy of the BRCA-1 promoter by DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT-1), CpG methylation of the BRCA-1 promoter, and expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4). These changes were partially overridden by pre-exposure to Res, which stimulated the expression of the AhR repressor (AhRR) and its recruitment to the BRCA-1 gene. These findings point to maternal exposure to AhR agonists as a risk factor for breast cancer in offspring through epigenetic inhibition of BRCA-1 expression, whereas dietary antagonists of the AhR may exert protective effects. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Molecular Carcinogenesis 04/2015; 54(4). DOI:10.1002/mc.22095
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ABSTRACT: Honey bees are important model systems for the investigation of learning and memory and for a better understanding of the neuronal basics of brain function. Honey bees also possess a rich repertoire of tones and sounds, from queen piping and quacking to worker hissing and buzzing. In this study, we tested whether the worker bees' sounds can be used as a measure of learning. We therefore conditioned honey bees aversively to odours in a walking arena and recorded both their sound production and their movement. Bees were presented with two odours, one of which was paired with an electric shock. Initially, the bees did not produce any sound upon odour presentation, but responded to the electric shock with a strong hissing response. After learning, many bees hissed at the presentation of the learned odour, while fewer bees hissed upon presentation of another odour. We also found that hissing and movement away from the conditioned odour are independent behaviours that can co-occur but do not necessarily do so. Our data suggest that hissing can be used as a readout for learning after olfactory conditioning, but that there are large individual differences between bees concerning their hissing reaction. The basis for this variability and the possible ecological relevance of the bees' hissing remain to be investigated.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118708. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118708
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